The act or procedure of educating or of person educated is a process the knowledge and growth resultant from an educational course. The ground of study that deal mostly with method of teaching and learning in schools (www.preservearticles.com).
Education is involved in decisive a man’s luck and future. It is a known fact that an inexpert man cannot donate in the development of the country. Even our religion Islam makes it compulsory for every man and woman to obtain education. The smooth organization of a country relies a lot on how much significance it gives to education domination, and war. The first time we are introduce to formal teaching is in school. The school years are the foundation years of one’s education. Schools are institution that lay the base of a child’s development. They play a vital role in developing children into responsible citizens and good human beings. It’s a school where young talent is recognized and nurtured. On leaving school, we are all set to soar high in life, and enter the real world in chase of our thoughts. Education provide us with information about the world. It paves the way for a good career. It helps build character. It leads to explanation. It lays the groundwork of a stronger nation. The Education makes us complete in the universe. Kautilya, an Indian philosopher, royal adviser, and professor of economics and political science very rightly underlined the importance of education, some 2000 years ago. He has highlighted the fact that education enrich people’s sympathetic of themselves. He has said that education is an investment in human capital, and it can have a huge impact on a nation’s enlargement and development. (www.preservearticles.com).
In our society Schools and other educational fields define the basic structure of education. Schooling gives us the basics. We concentrate in fields of our attention throughout degree courses. The number of institutes gift occupational courses and those contribution online education is increasing by the day. Occupational courses help earn particular education. Online degree programs help the working class and adults pursue education even while continuing work. Distance education has proven to be of big help for many. But the education is not incomplete to that obtain from educational institutes. knowledge is a all-time process. Rather, self-learning begins at a point where institutional education ends. The process of self-learning continues throughout one’s life. The importance of education is well-supported by a speech made by US President Barack Obama. In his national address to students across the nation, he said: “… Every single one of you has something that you’re good at. Every single one of you has something to offer. And you have a task to yourself to determine what that is. That’s the chance an education can provide.” (www.buzzel.com).
Education is the process of character development. Education is careful as one of the most important factor in human academic growth. It costs currency in the first but it earns person and communal benefits in the next. Educated manpower is the best resource of the society. (www.buzzel.com).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study attempts to analyze effect of positive student teacher relationship on students learning outcomes at primary level in private sector school in Muzaffarabad azad Jammu and Kashmir. For this work existing literature is deeply and critically analyzed to find possible solution to this problem.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as under:
1. To assess the effects of positive student teacher relationship on students learning
2 To assess the effects of primary level.
3. To analyze the role of private schools on the student’s attitudes.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will provide us sufficient information about the effect of positive student teacher relationship on students learning outcomes at primary level in private sector school in Muzaffarabad azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study will cooperative for parents to know the significance of pre-primary education. The study will helpful for the rule makers to include pre-primary education in instructive policy. The study will helpful for the set of courses developer to design better pre-primary curriculum.
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Education is an important aspect of socialization the life long course of learning the attitude, values and performance suitable to persons as members of a exacting culture. Education is a socialization process, which continues from birth to death. Education is a process by which the socially approved parts of culture, values and norm are transmit from age group to generation and in this process the acquired knowledge is shared by the members of society. Education is a consciously forbidden process whereby changes are shaped in a person’s behavior and through a person within the group. Education is considered as one of the major factor in speed up the procedure of social change in any society. Pakistan is one of the countries with poor literacy rate in the world, which is 61.3% for males and 36.8% for females. In Pakistan, a big number of people want to teach their sons and daughters, but only one third of the total prefer their daughters to be in jobs (Ali et al, 2005).
Female in Pakistan is about half of the total inhabitants. But unluckily, they do not get equal opportunity just like males. Parents whether educated or inexpert have desire to educate their children. Almost all the parents wish their children might complete the financial reimbursement along with reputable communal status. In spite of all these things, level of education is very low particularly for female it tells a woeful story. Mostly females are not encouraged by their parents to get education. Sex is an important trait in presumptuous status to an person. Beside these there may be more factors like father’s instructive level, income, social class, family size and job, which affect the teaching of daughters. There are different attitudes of parents towards the education of their daughters. The parents who are more literate have more wish to their daughter’s education. Urban people are more involved in the education of their daughter than the rural ones (Hussain et al. 2003).
Education’s importance has been emphasize by a number of global convention, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, recognized that women’s literacy is key to empowering women’s participation in choice making in society and to civilizing families’ well-being. In adding, the United Nations has articulated the Millennium growth Goals (MDGs), which include goals for improved education, gender equality, and women’s empowerment. The MDGs highlight education’s essential role in building democratic societies and creating a foundation for sustained economic growth. Education contributes directly to the growth of national income by improving the productive capacities of the labor force. A recent study of 19 developing countries, including Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, finished that a country’s long-term financial increase increases by 3.7 percent for every year the adult population’s average level of education rises (Fahimi and Moghadam, 2003).
To ignore their education income to leave half of the inhabitants inexpert. No one nation can development by ignore feminine education. Education of a girl is like civilizing a family while civilizing a boy is merely educating a person. The educational backwardness of rural people is due to their traditional move toward towards feminine education. In rural areas number of schools are inadequate and obtainable school do not full fill the needs of rural females. Females are obtainable very little opportunities to advantage from the public school system. Low income, bradri system and old people are the main hurdles of female education. This study was designed to identify the factors which are moving the approach of mothers towards female education. This study has been intended to develop this sympathetic along with main hurdles and gender favoritism which affects the move toward of mothers towards female education. The information will be useful for planners and policy makers for scheming female education programmer in the country. (www.buzzel.com).
A propagation of research from Eschenmann (1991) and other scholars suggest that if teachers take the time to build relations they can inspire their students to learn. Further research (Whitaker, 2004) also suggest that teachers need to have a strong belief that building relations are important to the motivation process. There is a need to take advantage of on these beliefs for the child’s benefit. It is important that educators be familiar with the impact they have on their students, and consider strongly their students’ perceptions of them (Eschenmann, 1991). Teachers have to ensure that they are gathering student needs, both rationally and emotionally. Creating classroom environments that promote positive cultures with healthy interactions can inspire students to channel their energies and desires to reach their goals. According to Whitaker (2004), the main variable in the classroom is not the student, but the teacher. Great teachers have high prospect for their students, but even higher expectations for themselves (2004). (www.buzzel.com).
2.1 Importance of Connecting With Their Students
These teachers be familiar with the significance of between with their students, that if they are unable to connect with them expressively then influence their minds may be not possible (2004). “Good teachers put snags in the river of kids fleeting by, and over time, they forward hundreds of lives. There is an blamelessness that conspire to hold humankind together …” (Bolman ; Deal, 2002, p. 124). Whitaker (2004) suggests that teachers are the first and perhaps most important point of contact in a student’s life. Despite the countless reforms, educational movements, and programs implement to improve education, no other element can be as profound as the human element. He urge, “It’s the people, not the programs” (Whitaker, 2004, p.9). More deeply he states, “There are really two ways to improve a school significantly: Get better teachers and get better the teachers in the school” (p.9). “A basic question for a student is ‘Does my teacher like me?’ Given a precise, aligned curriculum, the answer to that simple question is our best forecaster of student achievement”(Terry, 2008, p.1). Teacher knowledge and efficacy of student motivation and attainment are crucial components to creating relationships that motivate. Both teachers and students have to value their payment. A student has to feel worthwhile and valued. A teacher needs to be familiar with that he or she can have a positive effect on their students. Wiseman and Hunt (2001) refer to this as “teacher effectiveness” and note that the more the teacher believes in this, the more they will cause it to happen. Research acknowledge (Whitaker, 2004; Tyler & Boelter, 2008) teacher prospect as strong and dependable predictors of presentation among basic, center and high school students. In fact, Pajares and Miller (1994) purport that self-efficacy beliefs have stronger impact on behavior and performance than self-concept and self esteem. Other research (Walker Tileston, 2004;
2.2 Perceptions of Motivation
In a study by Eschenmann in 1991, health job students assess 8 teachers based on their character or individual manners: clearness in teaching, instructional methods and problem solving skills. The result strengthens the argument that there is indeed a optimistic relationship between teaching style and student performance. Student achievement is prompted based on the student’ perception of their teachers. It is argue that students whose teacher are paying attention in their growth and growth have high presentation levels (Eschenmann, 1991). The first and most significant tool to supplementary an individual to succeed is the attitude we have to their success. “Teacher quality is the single most accurate indicator of a student’ performance in school” (Carter, 2000, p.18). Educator needs to teach, yet prospect tend to have a better impact than what is actually taught. In fact, effectiveness and maybe even understanding may have a greater crash on a child’s success than a teacher’s mastery of the content. In a relatively recent study by Pearson (2003), the presentation of poor urban schools was compare to that of center class suburban schools. The teachers interview were alienated into three ethnic category: white teachers, trans-racial teachers, and teachers of color. It was note worthy that it was not of necessity the teachers who shared the students’ ethnicities or cultures that believe in their possibilities, nor believed in their intrinsic failure. The results indicated that it was the teacher’s insight, not their civilization or culture that made the main dissimilarity in children’s lives. The teachers surveyed who were the most successful were the ones who supposed that teaching was a calling for them. Once again, as Carter (2000) noted, Master Teachers believe in the culture of achievement and consequently they hold high prospect for their children. www.buzzle.com
2.3 Children’s Diversity
This is unlike a teacher who looks at her class and sees student whom she believes will fail, instead of seeing students with whom she will have to work harder to help in being successful. The teacher, who makes excuse for breakdown, often relieves himself or herself of the blame to ensure the achievement of this brood. The Master Teacher sees the children’s diversity as a pro and not a swindle and views a multi-lingual child as having the benefit of experience and enjoys both cultures. Evenhandedness hypothesis address the idea that student presentation is very much impacted by their awareness of the justice of their teachers. According to Wren (1995), the well-known researchers for this theory comprise Weick (1966), Adams (1975),and Mowday (1979). Wren states that this theory emphasizes the significance placed on individuals feeling that they are in receipt of fair and evenhanded action, such as motivation, which is based on fairness. This theory state that a student will exert more effort for a task if he or she believes their effort will result in a prize that is suitable for the effort they exerted as well as, that the rewards will be similar to their peers under similar situation (Wren, 1995).
2.4 Emily Gallagher
Teachers play an important role in the route of students all through the formal schooling knowledge (Baker, Grant, ; Morlock, 2008). though most investigate concerning teacher-student relationships investigate the elementary years of schooling, teachers have the unique opportunity to support students’ academic and social development at all levels of schooling (Baker et al., 2008; Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998; McCormick, Cappella, O’Connor, ; Mc Clowry, in press). allied with add-on theory (Ainsworth, 1982; Bowlby, 1969), positive teacher-student relationships enable students to feel safe and secure in their learning environments and provide scaffolding for important social and academic skills (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor, Dearing, & Collins, 2011; Silver, Measles, Armstrong, & Essex, 2005). Teachers who support students in the knowledge surroundings can absolutely impact their social and academic outcomes, which are important for the long-term trajectory of school and finally employment (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor et al., 2011; Silver et al., 2005).
2.5 Positive teacher behavior with student.
When teachers form positive bonds with students, classrooms become helpful spaces in which students can engage in rationally and socially creative ways (Hamre ; Pianta, 2001). optimistic teacher-student relations are secret as having the attendance of nearness, warmth, and positivity (Hamre ; Pianta, 2001). Students who have positive relations with their teachers use them as a secure base from which they can explore the classroom and school setting both rationally and socially, to take on educational challenge and work on social-emotional growth (Hamre ; Pianta, 2001). This includes relations with peers, and rising self-esteem and self-concept (Hamre ; Pianta, 2001). Through this secure association, students learn about socially appropriate behaviors as well as academic prospect and how to achieve these expectations (Hamre ; Pianta, 2001). Students in low-income schools can especially benefit from positive relationships with teachers (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005).
Students in high-poverty urban schools may benefit from positive teacher-student family members even more than students in high-income schools, because of the risks associated with poverty (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005). There are several factors that can defend next to the apathetic outcome often linked with low-income schooling, one of which is a positive and kind relationship with an adult, most often a teacher (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005). Low-income students who have strong teacher-student relationships have higher educational achievement and have more positive social-emotional change than their peers who do not have a positive association with a teacher (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005). There is substantial research on the importance of teacher-student relations in the early elementary years (Pianta, 1992; Hamre ; Pianta 2001). However, little is known about the effects of teacher-student relationships on high school student. Studies show that early teacher-student relationships affect early academic and social outcome as well as future academic outcomes (Pianta 1992; Hamre ; Pianta 2001), but few researchers have looked at the effects of teacher-student relationships in later years of schooling. Researchers who have investigated teacher-student relationships for older students have found that optimistic teacher-student relations are associated with positive academic and social outcomes for high school students (Alexander, Entwisle, ; Horset, 1997; Cataldi ; KewallRamani, 2009).
2.6 Academic Outcomes
though many studies center on the significance of early teacher-student relationships, some studies have found that teacher student relationships are important in change years; the years when students change from elementary to middle school or middle to high school (Alexander et al., 1997; Cataldi ; KewallRamani, 2009; Midgley, Feldlaufer, ; Eccles, 1989). Studies of math competence in students transitioning from basic to middle school have found that students who move from having optimistic relationships with teachers at the end of elementary school to less positive relationships with teacher in middle school considerably decreased in math skills (Midgley et al., 1989). For students who are considered at high risk for dropping out of high school, math achievement is considerably impacted by the insight of having a kind teacher (Midgley et al., 1989). also, students who went from low teacher closeness to high teacher nearness significantly greater than before in math skills over the change year, from basic to middle school (Midgley et al., 1989). These study show that relationships with teachers in the later years of schooling can still significantly impact the academic attainment trajectory of students (Midgley et al., 1989).
Another example of the significance of teacher-student relations in high school students stems from interference studies meant at improving educational outcomes for low-income students (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005). In one meddling study that meant to add to positive relations between low-income high school students and their teachers, results showed that students who participate in the intervention considerably better their GPA over the course of five months (Murray ; Malmgren, 2005). Such research shows that positive teacher-student relationships can get better academic skill in students as early as middle school and as late as high school (Midgley et al., 1989; Murray ; Malmgren, 2005).
2.7 Academic Improvement and Positive Teacher-Student Relationships
A likely reason for the friendship between educational development and positive teacher-student relations is students’ incentive and desire to learn (Wentzel, 1998). incentive may play a key role in the association between teacher-student relations and academic outcomes (Bandura, 1997; Fan & Willams, 2010; Pajares & Graham, 1996; Ryan, Stiller, & Lynch, 1994; Wentzel, 2003; Zimmerman, Bandura, & Martinez-Pons, 1992). Motivational theorists propose that students’ perception of their association with their teacher is essential in inspiring students to perform well (Bandura, 1997; Fan ; Willams, 2010; Pajares ; Graham, 1996; Ryan, Stiller, ; Lynch, 1994; Wentzel, 2003; Zimmerman, Bandura, ; Martinez-Pons, 1992). Students who perceive their association with their educator as positive, warm and close are motivated to be more engaged in school and to improve their academic achievement (Hughes, Cavell, ; Jackson, 1999). Students’ motivation to learn is impacted positively by having a caring and supportive relationship with a teacher (Wentzel, 1998).
Motivation is closely linked to student’s perceptions of teacher expectations. Studies of middle and high school students have shown that students shape their own educational expectations from their perceptions of their teachers’ expectations (Muller, Katz, & Dance, 1999). Students who perceive that their teachers have high expectations of their academic achievement are more aggravated to try to meet that prospect and perform better academically than their peers who perceive low expectations from their teachers (Muller et al., 1999). Due to the power of view on incentive, view can be an significant factor on a students’ educational attainment. Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., ; Pianta, R. (2013).
Furthermore, teacher-student relations have an crash on the educational self-esteem of students (Ryan et al., 1994). High-poverty students frequently have low academic self-esteem and low self-assurance in their educational and vocational futures (Wentzel, 2003). Thus, positive relationships with teachers are important in supporting higher levels of self-esteem, higher academic self-efficacy, and more self-confidence in future service outcomes (Ryan et al., 1994; Wentzel, 2003). Self-confidence and future aspirations have a important impact on students’ interest in school, their academic self-efficacy and in turn, their academic achievement (Wentzel, 2003). In addition to academic achievement, positive teacher-student relations provide important social outcomes for students. Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013).
2.8 Social Outcomes
Although there is more research concerning the educational effects of positive teacher-student relationships for older students, there are notable social outcomes as well. Teachers are an important source of social capital for students (Muller, 2001). Social capital in a classroom setting is defined as caring teacher-student relationships where students feel that they are both cared for and expected to succeed (Muller, 2001). Social capital from positive teacher-student relationships can manifest itself in many different ways. For high school students, positive teacher-student relationships can reduce rates of dropping out by nearly half, help explore options for college, and provide support for further academic or vocational aspirations (Dika & Singh, 2002). Common reasons for dropping out include low levels of family support, low academic achievement, poor relationships with peers and adults, and low interest in academics (Henry, Knigh, & Thornberry, 2012). Positive teacher-student relationships can impact students social and academic outcomes, and thus reduce drop-out rates (Dika & Singh, 2002; Wentzel, 2003). Low-income students often have neither the support they need to complete high school nor access to the information they need to pursue education beyond high school (Dika &Singh, 2002). It is important for low-income students who experience academic difficulties and negative social outcomes to gain social capital from their teachers, because research shows they can benefit from the guidance and support ,Further, teacher-student relationships can impact peer relationships in schools. (Croninger & Lee, 2001).
2.9 Teacher-Student Relationships
Teacher-student relationships can have a significant effect on the peer acceptance of students. Teachers’ interactions with students can affect classmates’ perceptions of individual students, in turn affecting which students classmates choose to interact with and accept (Hughes et al., 1999). Conflicting interactions between teachers and students may convey a lack of acceptance, causing other students to also reject the student involved in the conflict with the teacher (Hughes et al., 1999). Peer rejection significantly impacts self-esteem of students leading to several negative social outcomes (Hughes et al., 1999).
As mentioned earlier, students with high self-esteem are more likely to be self-efficacious and set higher goals (Ryan et al., 1994; Wentzel, 2003). Self-esteem also affects students socially (Orth, Robins, & Widaman, 2012). Students with high self-esteem are more likely to have positive relationships with peers as well as with adults (Orth et al., 2012). Self-esteem also affects students’ mental health outcomes including reducing anxiety and symptoms of depression (Orth et al., 2012). Self-esteem is especially important during adolescence and helps students develop a positive sense of self (Orth et al., 2012). A positive sense of self in adolescence leads to future outcomes including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, emotional regulation, and physical health (Orth et al., 2012). The support of positive teacher-student relationships for self-esteem and related social outcomes affects students during schooling as well as in their future educational and occupational outcomes (Orth et al., 2012).
2.10 Relationships, Cultures, and Student Achievement
There are many who seem to have the ability to bring out the best in people.
“Motivators are not born- they are made” (McGinnis, 1985, p16). “There is no such thing as an unmotivated person” (McGinnis, 1985, p18). Instead, different things and different environments motivate different people. He adds that the task then is to channel the existing passion and energies into the correct paths. McGinnis (1985) emphasized the strong difference between motivation and manipulation. It is imperative that a teacher does not confuse the two. According to McGinnis (1985), an effective leader, (teacher) needs two main ingredients; first, that individual should have “an astute knowledge of what makes people tick” (McGinnis, 1985p.161) and second a contagious spirit. Glasser (1998) describes an effective teacher as one who is “able to convince not half or three quarters but essentially all his or her students to do quality work in school” (p.16). In this teacher’s classroom, no child will be left behind. He proposes the idea of Choice Theory, where he argues that human beings are born with five basic needs:
2.11 Love, power, survival, fun, and freedom.
In order to satisfy these basic needs most individuals seek to relate or connect to other people on a social basis. Theoretically, this is identified, as Affiliation Motivation. Anderman and Kaplan (2008) identified affiliation as a social motive and have reviewed research that suggests that social goals lead to initiation, management, and intensity of a behavior as it related to things such as academic achievement. The research also focused on how social perceptions affected academic achievement. Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013).
In a 2008 study, adolescents who believed they were valued or respect by their peers were more likely to report adapted achievement motivation as measured by Maehr’s (1984) Theory of Personal Investment. These research results indicated that teens are generally influenced both positively and negatively. The results demonstrated adaptive achievement if the teen had a good quality friendship and a best friend who valued academics. Maladaptive achievement was reported among students who had poor quality friendships and classmates (friends) who did not value academics (Nelson ; DeBacker, 2008). It is therefore important to create positive relationships or cultures where success is celebrated and expected. Educators need to help their students to establish high standards for themselves. This needs to be done by supporting them and helping them to nurture the desire for greater accomplishments, as well as teaching them to set the bar a little higher each step of their journey. According to McGinnis (1985), few individuals can be coerced into higher performance that can last any significant amount of time, and will not generate any lasting far-reaching effects. Educational institutions need to create specific systematic programs to equip each child with the tools they need to learn at high levels (Dufour, Dufour, Eaker ; Karhanek, 2004). Carter (2000) argues against the idea that we need to “dumb down” material for struggling students. Instead, he argues that we need to teach students the tools they need, as well as help them to establish the attitude for that success (Carter, 2000). Apart from setting high standards, schools need to create the climate that will nurture that attitude (Dufour, Dufour ; Eaker, 2002). Schools need to convince the students that they can be successful. Hold both the staff and students accountable for commonly determined standards; raise the bar higher after each success and as Pawlas (2005) noted, celebrate each small victory to motivate them to keep working. According to Ruby Payne (2003), “we can neither excuse students nor scold them for not knowing; as educators we must teach them and provide support, insistence, and expectations” (p.11). Educators have the distinct role of being guiding lights for their students. Teachers and administrators alike need to recognize that often students come to them without the skills they need to succeed. In fact, that is the primary purpose of the educational system, to provide them with the tools for success. As educators create the culture of achievement and geminate the idea in each child that they can be successful (expectancy) that should in turn precipitate the desire to experience success. For example, if the student desires success of passing an exam, then a passing grade becomes positively valent, while failure is negatively valent because the student does not desire that result. Aside from instilling the idea in students that they have unlimited potential and can be successful (expectancy), the educational system needs to teach students to desire this success, or add valence to success. As oversimplified as that statement sounds, it would perhaps be surprising to know how many students are not being directly socialized to desire academic success. In other words, there are students whose social conditions do not place emphasis on being successful in a classroom nor on the doors this success can open. Kesner, J. E. (2000). Teacher characteristics and the quality of child-teacher relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 28(2), 135-149.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of positive student teacher relationship on students learning outcomes at primary level in private sector school in Muzaffarabad azad Jammu and Kashmir. In order to investigate the problem methodology of data collection and data analysis following procedure was used.
Private sector School of Muzaffarabad is the population of my study.
Sample of the study was 10 schools were randomly selected from the population were selected through convenient sampling technique.
3.3 Data collection:
The questionnaire approved by supervisor were administered to the sample students the researcher himself visited the institutions for the collection of data through questionnaire from students and teachers.
3.4 Data analysis:
The data obtained through questionnaire were scored by distributing and taking percentages of each question.