4- Balkan conflict
The former Yugoslavia was a Socialist state established aftermath ww2 and a cruel civil war. It was included 6 republics with different ethnic, religious and identities like: Croats, Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Slovenes and others under a comparatively comfortable communist regime.
This case refers to ethnic conflict among various nations and religious in one state. This case started as a result of which different nations claimed to have own state, then led to the growth of the conflict between different nations and religious. This conflict is asymmetric and intra-state conflict.
Major causes of war (differences view of the parties):
Increase of Nationalism, which one of the main point to start the conflict such as Slovenia, and Croatia were of the six republics to officially leave Yugoslavia, announcing freedom 1991. And then Yugoslavia started to fought with them.
1992 Bosnia declared independence and Serbs fights it.
The conflict started in 1992 Bosnia declared independence and Serbs fights it, , major causes of the conflict were the differences between parties and then led to polarizations according to our book this stage called escalation as well as the war took a place in the result of differences among parties.
This case differ from the other cases, has a different stage which is called de-escalation, after the major war among minority (Bosnia, Muslims) with Serbs as a (majority) the new stage came about ceasefire then led to peace building in their territory .
5- Somalia case
Somalia is located in the east horn of the Africa, It is bordered the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean. Bordering countries was Kenya, Djibouti, and Ethiopia. Somalia was polonaise by Italy, France, and Britain. Somalia has gotten independence in 1960.
Since 1960 to 1969 Somalia has democratic state. After 1969 Siad Barre ruled the Somali. Siad Barre killing a lot of people. The conflict escalated when in 1978 when Dictatorial Siad Barre removed. There are three major cause of war (political, economy, and social) the civil war in Somalia started in 1991. During civil war more than 1000,000 Somalia people died. All process of peace keeping until now failed in Somalia because of external intervention. This conflict is negative peace.