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Progress Report I
Projek Sarjana Muda I


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka





Drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture
from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi -solid or liquid (hereafter product) to
end in a solid state 1 -3. This is because the purpose of drying proce ss is to lessen the amount
of water content in the product to make sure the environment become inappropriate for
proliferation of microorganisms 2, 4 . Therefore it can prolong the shelf -life of products 5-8
and furthermore can decrease the expenses of transportation and capacity 8. Drying process
is important as the most effective and practical method for food preservation to reduce losses
especially in produced marine product such as salted fish, anchovies and others since it can be
safely stored for longer period of time . This method widely used at the state whereas nearby
with the sea such as Terengganu , Sabah and others as their business .
Norm ally, people at the Malaysia are using open sun drying method to dry their marine
products such as salted fish, smal l prawns, anchovies and others. However, this method has
several disadvantages such as exposed to the dust, air pollution or the case of pest or insect
attacked on the products and lack of hygienic 3, 5, 9. Besides that, this method also not
effective when the condition is not conducive such as rainy season, therefore artificial drying

process is needed to be develop 3, 4 . It will took a long period of drying rate during cloudy
weather and limitations of time during rai ny day . Therefore, the products of drying become
low quality of products 3, 7 .
Based on these issues, drying process can be improved and worked well throughout the
year by development of drying chamber according our technology nowadays . Normally, they
have been developed drying chamber assisted with solar or known as solar drying 3, 10 -12 .
Since, Malaysia is located in the equator area. In the eq uator area, much of the irradiance is
acceptable throughout the year since only has two wea ther either hot or rainy . Malaysia usually
rec eives about 13 hours of irradiance . The average temperature environment is between 26 and
32 oC, and the average relative humidity ranges from 80 to 90 % and never less than 60% 19 .
Therefore, Malaysia has high tendency to develop solar drying due to its strategic location.
The re are many advantages for using this method which are the quality of the products
is higher due to sun drying because it can prevent the products from the contamination and the
case o f pest and insect attacked on product is reduced 3, 5, 7. Other than that, solar drying
system can save energy, consume less time, use less space, enhance the quality of product,
improve the efficiency of the drying process and save the environme nt 13 .
The characteristics of grea t drying chamber are the uniformity air flow distribution in
the chamber to make sure uniform drying of product 8-9, 14 -16 . Drying uniformity can be
enhanced when air flow distribution throughout the drying chamber in a good c ondition 9 ,
18 . The purpose of uniform air flow distribution is to improve the efficiency of drying chamber
so that the homogeneity of product being dried become improved 9. In order to get uniformity
air flow distribution, the arrangement of tray drye r must be improved. The alternate
arrangement of dryer tray position was embraced to guarantee that all the plate are exposed
straightforwardly to drying air and to enhance airflow distribution throughout the drying

chamber 14 . Other than that, air tempe rature and velocity also influenced in the drying
process. The range of air velocity in the drying process is 1.5 m/s to 3 m/s 4. However,
sometimes the air velocity is depended on moisture content of product. The evaporation rate
from the product will b e rise when the temperature of air increased. So that, the capacity of
water vapour become larger 14 .
There are many components in the drying chamber as shown in Figure 1. The main
components of the drying chamber are:
1. The cabinet / chamber
2. Dryer tray
3. Heat Source
4. Inlet and outlet

Figure 1.1 The example of drying chamber

The most suitable method to evaluate that drying chamber is simulated by
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) due to the expensive and difficulties of the measurement
for drying parameters if doing an experiment. Nowadays, the CFD simulation is used
extensiv ely because it’s capable to solve the equations for many cases such as conservation of
mass, momentum and energy using numerical me thods to predict drying parameters which are
temperature, velocity and pressure profiles 9, 14 . The users of CFD simulation become
increase throughout the year. They become more realized that used CFD simulation is easier
than experimental. This is because it is very appropriate to use for estimation of drying
parameters in the drying chamber compared to the experiment which a re expensive, difficulties
and consume a lot of time to install a few equipment 14 . Besides that, by using this software,
all the parameters can be adjusted freely in orders to get the best solutions.
In this study, the prediction of drying time of a ma rine product to dry are simulated and
compared by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis which is ANSYS. The
study has involved two -dimensional 17 unsteady state or also known as transient state. This
state has study about time dependent so that the drying time for drying chamber can be
determined. The uniform drying and increasing of drying rate also improves t he quality of dried
product 2 . This is because the moisture uniformity of products is one of the imperative
criterion to de term ine the quality of drying 8 .


Drying process by sun drying is the most popular method used by Malaysian citizen to
dry their foods especially in marine product such as salted fish, anchovies and others as food
preservations . However, this method has many limitations caused of weathers at the Malaysia
is not hot throughout the year since Malaysia located at the e quator of the earth which are hot
and rainy weather. Therefore, it took a long period of drying during cloudy weath er and the
pro duct does not dry well. The reproduction of microorganism will be increase. This is caused
the quality of product become low and cannot be stored for a long time . Basically, sun drying
needed a large space when involved a lots of quantities o f dried products. It caused the products
exposed the product to the contamination of dust, pollution and insect. Therefore , a drying
chamber with technology must be develop to overcome this problem. In order to make sure the
drying chamber can work properly and the drying rate is uniform, a simulation must be carried
out to evaluate and analyse the behaviour of drying chamber.

The objectives of this study are:
1. To predict the drying time of a drying chamber for marine product b y using
Computational Fluid (CFD) simulation.
2. To study the uniformity air flow distribution affect the drying time.

The scope of works for this study are:
1) Specifically for the dried squid.
2) The simulation will be carried out by using CFD simulation which is ANSYS Fluent
3) To perform steady state condition of analysis.

The methodology of this study can easier be described by using a flowchart as shown
in Figure 1 .2. The flowchart below shown all the actions and flows that need to be carried out
to achieve all the objectives in this study .



Figure 1.2 Flow Chart of the General Methodology for the Project
Literature Review
Simulation Study
Design the model
Optimiz ation
Result/ Discussion
% error

1) Literature Review
Journal, articles or any materials regarding the project will be reviewed. All the
information from the journals, articles or any materials as a references .

2) Simulation study
The best method is verified for this s tudy by comparing a few method in the references .
The simulation study is studied the CFD simulation by using ANSYS FLUENT 16.0 in
details by using its manual. Identify all the parameter properly.

3) Per centage of error
Try to run the simulation about the existed data from experiment or else to verify the
method of simulation is correct for this study.

4) Design the model
Study the behaviour and the component of the drying chamber from the existed drying
chamber. Design a new drying chamber by improved it behaviour or else to make it
more better in future.

5) Parameter
Determine and study the parameter that related to the study. Try to run simulation with
the exactly parameter in ord er to obtain the best result.

6) Optimization of Design
Enhancement the design to get the optimal design based on the result of simulation.
Achieve higher heat/mass transfer rates and uniform drying. The posture of air flow
distribution is uniform. To achieve the product dried uniformly.

7) Result / Discussion
Tabulated the result and shown in to the graph . Graph to show relationship between
drying rate, velocity and temperatures. Compared with the expected result to make sure
the result obtain is correcte d. The simulation will be presented the uniformity air flow
distribution in the drying chamber and the drying rate of product. The analysation of
data will be simulated by ANSYS FLUENT based on the parameters and boundary
conditions. The specifically of ma rine product is dried squid.

8) Conclusion
The conclusion can be concluded about the achieving all the objectives in this study. A
few recommendation can be recommend to improve the study in the future.

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