Arun et al

Arun et al. (2014) found that 125% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost recorded significantly nutrient uptake in comparison to other treatments and this was followed by 100% RDF + 5 t/ha vermicompost. 125% RDF +5 t/ha vermicompost was increased N uptake in grain (36.81%) and straw (42.81%), P uptake in grain (32.62%) and straw (31.56%) and K uptake in grain (35.46%) and straw (25.39%) over control. The lower nutrient uptake was recorded in control.
Ranjitha et al. (2013) studied the different nutrient management options and found the application of 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (through urea) and remaining 50 % RDN through vermicompost resulted in significantly higher nutrient uptake (157.9, 30.7 and 166 N, P and K kg/ha, respectively) followed by 100 % RDN (through urea) application.
Mukesh kumar et al. (2012) reported that 100% recommended Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilizer along with organic sources recorded higher N uptake in rice as compared to 100% recommended Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilizer.
Acharya et al. (2012) found that nutrient uptake of rice was highest due to integrated nutrient application than that of inorganic nutrients alone, whereas lowest value was observed with control plot where no nutrient was applied.
Priyadarsini and Prasad (2003) studied that maximum N uptake by rice with the addition of 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through organic source on sandy clay loam soil during kharif season at Bapatla.
Jeyabal and Kuppuswamy (2001) revealed that integrated application of 50% N through vermicompost. 50% via fertilizer N increased the N, P and K uptake by 15.3. 10.7 and 9.4%, respectively in rice over fertilizer N alone in rice – legume cropping system in Tamil Nadu.
Chaudhary et al. (2011) reported that 75% RDN + 25% N through vermicompost and 75% RDN + 25% N through FYM registered significantly higher NPK uptake than inorganic alone.
Jeyabal and Kuppuswamy (2001) found that integrated application of 50% N through vermicompost. 50% via fertilizer N increased the N, P and K uptake by 15.3. 10.7 and 9.4%. respectively in rice over fertilizer N alone in rice – legume cropping system in Tamil Nadu.
2.1.3. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on quality characters
Chaudhary et al. (2011) they found that there was no significant difference in Kernel length and L/B ratio with conjunctive application of RDF and organic manure or RDF alone.
Dawari and Sharma (2010) reported the mean data over the two years indicated that in basmati rice Kernal length and breadth before and after cooking was increased with conjunctive application of vermi compost, wheat residue and bio fertilizers, it was significant over vermi compost alone and farm yard manure alone.
Harish and Devasenapathy (2010) reported that the treatment with incorporation of green manure + vermicompost had higher L/B ratio before and after cooking which decreased its length and increased breadth after cooking in rice on clay soils of Coimbatore
Gautam et al. (2005) found that kernel length and breadth before and after cooking were not influenced by nitrogen application
Mrudula (2004) studied that better quality parameters like volume expansion ratio and amylose of rice by the application of 50% organics and 50% inorganics which was on a par with 100% RDN through organic source treatments on sandy clay loam soils of Bapatla.
Priyadarsini and Prasad (2003) studied that the grain quality characters like, head rice recovery, grain length and breadth and protein content were highest in integrated use of 50% nitrogen through inorganic source (urea) and 50% nitrogen through organic sources (FYM + Green manure) on clay loam soils of Bapatla.
Hemalatha et al. (2000) studied the application of vermicompost numerically increased the values of all quality parameters like hulling per cent, head rice recovery compared to no vermicompost application.
2.1.4 Effect of Integrated nutrient management practices on post-harvest physico-chemical properties of soil
Babar and Dongale (2013) studied that the different soil fertility parameters viz., bulk density, porosity, organic carbon and available nutrients (NPK) content in soil showed significant improvement with the application of organic, inorganic and organic + inorganic sources of nutrients compared to the control treatment. The available nutrients content in soil was also slightly higher under 50% NPK (inorganic fertiliser) + 50% N (manure) treatment compared to only chemical fertilizers.
Rao et al. (2013) found that pH of soil was not influenced statistically by various treatments. The continuous use of manures and fertilizer slightly lowered the pH. Increased dose of fertilizer decreased the pH.
Roy (2013) studied that the maximum organic carbon, available NPK were recorded from the plots receiving 50% RDN through inorganic fertilizer and 50% through organic manures.
Surekha et al. (2013) revealed that integrated nutrient management (50% through inorganic and 50% through organic) brought about improvement in soil organic carbon available N, P and K as compared to inorganic fertiliser.
Srinivas et al. (2010) studied that after crop harvest available N,P and K content in soil was higher with application of RDF along with zinc compared to RDF alone and 50% RDF in combination with organic manures.
Yadav and Kumar (2009) found that combined use of organic manures and chemical fertilizers improved the physical condition of soil (decreased pH, ESP and EC from initial values, increase OC and available N, P and K) more effectively than continuous addition of chemical fertilizers alone.
Rather and Sharma (2009) studied that significant improvement in soil properties and fertility status was found under treatment of 100% Rec NPK + Vermicompost + Zinc + PSB. Organic carbon content of soil improved from 3.0 to 4.6 g kg-1 soil, Bulk density reduced from 1.50 to 1.32 Mg m-3, water holding capacity increased from 20.32 to 23.72 %, available N from 197.0 to 219.0 kg ha-1, available P from 13.0 to 19.1 kg ha-1, available K from 113.0 to 130.4 kg ha-1 and available Zn from 1.50 to 1.87 mg kg-1 soil by the integration of organics with inorganics.
Saha et al. (2007) found that highest total N in soil was observed with the application of 75% RDF along with pelleted form of organic manure (through 0.4 t ha-1 Biomax it contains 5% N, 0.88% P,0.83% K, 41.23% Cr and 4.8% Pb). The P and K status of soil was also higher with the treatment.
Fan et al. (2005) revealed that combination of organic and inorganic fertilization enhanced the accumulation of soil organic carbon and maintained the highest productivity.
Rajkhowa et al. (2003) found that soil organic carbon, available N, P and K status in soil improved significantly with vermicompost alone or in combination with fertilizer.
Sudhakar et al. (2002) revealed that application of chemical fertilizers along with vermicompost resulted in greater availability of micronutrients.
Bandyopadhyay and Puste (2002) studied that the application of 3 t ha-1 FYM or 3.65 t ha-1 rice straw with 25% recommended dose (100:60:60 kg ha-1 NPK) to rice in rice-rice cropping system in the red and laterite soils of West Bengal improved the available NPK content of the soil over sole fertilizer treatments.
Singh et al. (2001) reported that the organic manuring on 50% N equivalent basis (120 kg RDN) to rice through FYM, sesbania or carpet waste improved the nutrient status and sustained their initial values.
2.1.5. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on economics
Mohanty et al. (2014), found that the rice crop with integrated nutrient management i. e. 50% R.D.F. + 50% R.D.F. through organic sources (based on nitrogen requirement) practices realized the highest gross return (Rs. 75586 /ha) but the net return was at par with RDF ( Rs. 40251 /ha). The B:C ratio (Rs. 2.45 /ha) was the highest with R.D.F. followed by INM (Rs.2.16 /ha).
Lhungdim et al.(2014) found that the application of 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizers recorded higher net returns and benefit cost ratio as compared to other treatments i.e., 25% RDF + FYM 15 t /ha and 50% RDF + FYM 10 t /ha.
Kumari et al. (2010) studied that B:C ratio was higher in scented rice with application of RDF alone compared to sole organic alone treatment, due to increasing cost.
Chaudhary et al. (2011) found that among different nitrogen management practices, higher mean benefit cost ratio was recorded under100% RDN followed by 75% RDN + 25% FYM
Borkar et al. (2008) revealed the application of 100 percent nitrogen through fertilizer recorded maximum net return (Rs 15331.80 /ha) and B: C ratio (2.08) when compared to that of 50 percent N through fertilizer + 50 percent N through FYM with a net return of (Rs 9645 /ha) and B: C ratio (1.51).
Barik et al. (2008) found that the highest net returns (?15245 /ha) and return per rupee investment (2.11) were achieved from application of 60% RD of N from urea and 40% RDN from vermicompost, it was equivalent with the supply of 100% RDN entirely from urea (2.09) on sandy loam soils of West Bengal
Jat et al. (2015) from Varnasi found that 100% N through fertilizers recorded higher net returns followed by 50% RDN through fertilizers + 50% through FYM and was lowest with 100% RDN through FYM.
Lhungdim et al. (2014) found that the application of 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizers recorded higher net returns and benefit cost ratio as compared to other treatments i.e., 25% RDF + FYM 15 t /ha and 50% RDF + FYM 10 t /ha.
Borkar et al. (2008) found that the application of 100 percent nitrogen through fertilizer recorded maximum net return (Rs 15331.80 /ha) and B: C ratio (2.08) when compared to that of 50 percent N through fertilizer + 50 percent N through FYM with a NMR of (Rs 9645 /ha) and B: C ratio (1.51)
2.2. Integrated Weed Management Practices
No single weed control method could solve the weed problem in transplanted rice. A combination of weed control method is thus needed to achieve maximum benefits.
2.2.1. Effect of Integrated Weed Management practices on growth and yield attributes and yield