Bruner felt that it was substantial for a learner to attain the fundamental values of a subject

Bruner felt that it was substantial for a learner to attain the fundamental values of a subject. His theoretical framework is that learning is an active process and pupils develop new ideas and concepts based upon existing knowledge; similarly to Piaget, he used three phases to develop his theory on modes of representation (how a pupil may think of an object).

Each mode is dominant at different stages of development but all are present and accessible at all times. The first stage (0-3)he termed was “enactive”. It involves encoding action based information and storing it in the child’s memory. Taking muscle memory as an example, a baby might remember the action of shaking a rattle. The second stage was named “iconic”, where learning can be obtained through using models and forms of images. When a child is learning a new subject, it is often useful