Cancer

Cancer: in general
Breast cancer
Breast cancer detection
Breast cancer treatment
Hundreds and thousands of people are affected by cancer each year; it is one of the most life-threatening diseases and a leading cause of death and disability for humans. CITATION Ira14 l 6153 (Iranifam, 2014). There are several types of cancer than can affect different areas of the body, some being less life-threatening than others. A large amount of patients suffer from late diagnosis or recurrence of their disease in spite of all the advances in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Modern cancer detection tools include: physical examination, biopsy, X-ray, Pet/CT, MRI, ultrasound, endoscopy, genetic tests and laboratory tests (urine, blood, etc.). Current available imaging modalities do not show micrometastasis and tumor biopsy is an invasive technique used to detect early stage or recurrent cancer, signifying the need for an inexpensive, painless diagnostic modality. CITATION Mer18 l 6153 (Rohanizadegan, 2018).
A tumor,otherwise known as a neoplasm, occurs when there is abnormal cellular growth which forms a lesion or in many cases, a lump. A tumor can grow in any part of the human body. There are two main types of tumors. The first type is cancerous and is known as a malignant tumor. The other type is non-cancerous and it referred to as a benign tumor. Cancer is a degenerative condition where there is uncontrollable cellular growth that spreads in your body. There are a number of different prolonged methods used to treat cancer. Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been used for a number of years to treat cancer.

Studies show that the temperature of a malignant tumor is higher than that of normal tissue. CITATION Sha97 l 6153 (Shaber, et al., 1997). Thermography is used in thermograms to study heat distribution in tumors; this method has been extensively used to detect cancer but has not been accepted for routine application.
Iranifam, M.(2014). Analytical applications of chemiluminescence methods for cancer detection and therapy. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry.

Rohanizadegan, M.(2018). Analysis of circulating tumor DNA in breast cancer as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Cancer Genetics.