Chapter 1 Introduction Area of Investigation The study seeks to examine reading comprehension deficits in brocas aphasia

Chapter 1
Introduction
Area of Investigation
The study seeks to examine reading comprehension deficits in brocas aphasia. The study specifically focuses on brocas aphasics at St Giles. Dutcher (1990) defines reading comprehension as the process through which the dynamic interaction of the reader’s background knowledge, the information inferred by the written language, and the reading situation context is constructing meaning. Harris and Hodges (1995) also define reading comprehension as the construction of the meaning of a written or spoken communication through a reciprocal, holistic interchange of ideas between the interpreter and the message. The major goal of this study is to describe and examine the nature of language comprehension of Shona speaking brocas aphasics as well as describing how brocas aphasia affects reading comprehension by determining the deficit if it is syntactic in nature.

The study falls under the broad area of psycholinguistics which is a branch of linguistics which studies language and the mind (Atchison 2008). The study also overlaps with the discipline of phonology, syntax and semantics due to the close examination of syntactic processing (text comprehension). Mayer and Motsch (2015) define phonology as the study of the sound patterns that occur within languages (ability to hear a word, break it down to discrete sounds and associate each sound that make up a word. Syntax is the grammatical structure of words whereas semantics is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language it is concerned with the relationship between signifiers like words, phrases and what they stand for and their denotation. Therefore, this study reflects the overlap existing between the linguistic disciplines. The goal of this research is thus to provide insight in the way in which phonology, syntax and semantics is affected in reading comprehension by the aphasics.

This study also seeks to offer an insightful analysis on how studies of aphasia can be beneficial in understanding the human unimpaired linguistic capacity since aphasia in general, is related to Chomskyan revolution in the study of language. As a result, given the benefits of understanding human unimpairements.

Comprehension deficits in brocas aphasia involves the phonological loop in sentence comprehension from reading comprehension. In this regard, this study examines if individuals preserve their phonological abilities intact. Phonological loop is necessary for the reading comprehension of syntactically complex words (Vanja 2012).

Objectives
The objectives of this study are:
-To describe the nature of brocas aphasia in relation to reading comprehension.

-To describe and examine how brocas aphasia affects reading comprehension that is to determine whether the deficit is syntactic nature and if the individuals preserve their phonological abilities intact.

Statement of the problem
The previous studies done on Brocas aphasia have been conducted on production since brocas aphasia was originally qualified as a disorder limited to speech production. In the early 1980s it was discovered that brocas aphasics do not just suffer from impaired production, also exhibit comprehension problems, especially with more complex syntactic structure. A large body of research resulted trying to elucidate the nature of this comprehension deficit, and consequently the role of Brocas area in syntactic processing. Hence the researcher wants to contribute in the comprehension deficit of aphasia. Therefore, the study will focus on reading comprehension deficit of Shona speaking Brocas aphasics.

Justification
The researcher seeks to examine the problems posed in reading comprehension deficits of Shona speaking aphasics. The major empirical contribution of this research is that it provides an in-depth study of Brocas aphasia focusing on reading comprehension. Vanja (2012) carried a study on language comprehension in Brocas aphasics, Carammaza and Zurif (1976) also carried a study on auditory word comprehension in Indo-European languages, hence little knowledge exists concerning comprehension deficit in African languages, primarily focusing on Shona language.

Research methodology
This section discusses the research methods which will be employed in data collection to be used in data analysis. The research methods serve as sources of linguistic evidence in the study. The research design to be undertaken in this study is that of a qualitative method, characterized by practical collection of primary data in the form of interviews (semi-structured), participant observation. The researcher will make use of the qualitative research as it is considered to be particularly suitable for gaining an in-depth
understanding from the informant.in terms of conceptualisation, qualitative is concerned with understanding human behaviour, from the informant perspective.

1.4.1Data Collection Techniques
1.4.1.1 Participant
The data in this study will be collected over a period of one and a half month from Shona speaking aphasics with reading comprehension deficit. A case study basically refers to a research strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. In this case the researcher makes use of case study due to the fact that case studies are based on an indepth investigation of individuals to explore the causes of underlying principles.

1.4.1.2 Data collection procedure
In carrying out the case study, the researcher uses observation to collect data. Merriam Webster defines participant observation as a research technique characterized by the effort of the researcher to gain entrance into and social acceptance so as to attain a comprehensive understanding of the internal structure of the society. Scholars are of the assertion that observation basically refers to the action of closely observing someone or something by collecting or gathering data. The research will then be making use of overt observation due to ethical considerations. The researcher will make use of audio recordings so as to allow an accurate analysis of data collected to take place. The use of audio recordings gives room for the researcher to notice other reading comprehension deficits during observation.

Data analysis
The researcher makes use of a descriptive method to analyse and explain the findings of the research.
Organisation of the study
The research comprises four chapters. Chapter one introduces the study, taking into consideration the issues involved in this study. It outlines the area of investigation, objectives, statement of the problem, justification and methodology used to carry out the study. Chapter two is an exhaustive review of literature relevant to the study of brocas aphasia on reading comprehension deficit. Chapter three presentation and analysis of data gathered throughout the study which focused on data collected during reading comprehension of the aphasic. Lastly chapter four will draw on conclusions of the based on the findings in chapter three and will also provide recommends areas that may require further exploration.