Citations

 

 

 

 

It is used in references made to particular pages or
sections of cases, articles, regulations, or statutes to indicate that the
desired information is continued on the pages or in the sections following a
designated page or section.

An abbreviation for the Latin et sequentes or et sequentia,
meaning – and the following.

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   vii.           
et seq.

It typically stands in for two or more names of
individuals involved in the writing of an article, especially in
bibliographical information.

is an abbreviation for et alia meaning – and others.

     vi.           
et al.

It is used in academic citations to replace the name
of a repeated author.

It is short for idem.
A Latin term meaning – the same

       v.           
id.

When the word is used, it indicates that a particular
name or subject occurs frequently throughout a particular piece of writing or
section of a book.

     iv.           
passim

It indicates that a piece of text taken from somewhere
else is from the same source as the previous piece of text.

It is short for ibidem, meaning – in the same place

     
iii.           
Ibid.

Used to indicate that the reference is the same
resource compised of author and date and the same citation location as
the previous one

It is short for loco
citato, meaning – in the place cited.

       ii.           
loc. cit

It is used in an endnote or footnote to refer the
reader to a previously cited work, standing in for repetition of the full title
of the work. It therefore refers the reader to the bibliography, where the full
citation of the work can be found, or to a full citation given in a previous
footnote.

It is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase opere citato, meaning – in the work
cited.

        
i.           
op. cit

2.      
Abbreviations
in academic writing.

 

 

E.g.  This is a challenge and requires more than “simple” editorial oversight.
Davis, The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

REFERENCING –Author
Surname, Title.

E.g.  Davis, Anderson, ed. The Good, the
Bad, and the Ugly. New York: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America,
2011.

BIBLIORGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename,
ed. Title. City: Publisher,
Year
Published.

CHICAGO

 

E.g.  This is a challenge and requires more than “simple” editorial oversight.
(Davis, 2011)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Davis, A. (2011). The Good, the Bad,
and the Ugly. (p.248). New York: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of
America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title
(p. Pages
Used). City: Publisher.

APA

 

E.g.  This is a challenge and requires more than “simple” editorial oversight.
(Davis, 2011)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Davis, A. ed., (2011). The Good, the
Bad, and the Ugly. 3rd ed. New York: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America,
p.248.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
ed., (Year
Published). Title.
ed. City:
Publisher,
p. Pages
Used.

HARVARD.

j)       
EDITED BOOK

 

Let nno man put asunder. Oxford
English Dictionary. ‘Asunder’. Oxford
English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2014.

REFERENCING – Author Forename, Author Surname, ‘Title’, Publication
Title (City: Publisher, Year Published),

E.g.  Oxford English Dictionary. ‘Asunder’. Oxford
English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2014.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Forename, Author Surname,
‘Title’,
Publication
Title (City: Publisher, Year Published),

CHICAGO

 

Asunder (Oxford English Dictionary,2014)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Oxford English Dictionary. (2014). ‘Asunder’. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Publication
Title. City: Publisher.

APA

 

Asunder (Oxford English Dictionary,2014)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Oxford English Dictionary. (2014). ‘Asunder’. In Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 347.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. In: Publication Title.
City:
Publisher,
p. Pages
Used.

HARVARD.

i)       
DICTONARY

 

 

E.g.  The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this
template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be
typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font. Stanley, Electric
System Projects.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, ‘Title’.

E.g.  Stanley, W. ‘Equations’. In Electric
System Projects. 47. Pennsylvania: Bloomsbury, 1992.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
‘Title’.
In Publication Title, Pages Used.
City:
Publisher,
Year
Published.

CHICAGO

 

E.g.  The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this
template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be
typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font. (Stanley, 1992)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Stanley, W. (1992). ‘Equations’, in Electric
System Projects. Tennessee, 22 July 2007. Pennsylvania: Bloomsbury.

BIBLIOGRAPHY- Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published) ‘Title’, in Publication
Title. Location, Date. City: Publisher.

APA

 

E.g.  The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this
template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be
typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font. (Stanley, 1992)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Stanley, W. (1992). ‘Equations’, in Electric
System Projects. Pennsylvania: Bloomsbury, p. 47.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published) ‘Title’, in Publication
Title. City: Publisher, p. Pages Used.

HARVARD.

h)       CONFERENCE
PAPER

 

 

 

 

Do your thing and I’ll do mine. Steel, Going Home.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, Title

Do your thing and I’ll do mine. Steel, Going
Home.

E.g.  Steel, D. 1st ed. Going
Home. New York: Pocket Books, 1973.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename,
ed. Title. City: Publisher,
Year
Published.

CHICAGO

 

Do your thing and I’ll do mine. (Steel, 1973)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Steel, D. (1973). Going Home. p.
127 New York: Pocket Books.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title (p. Pages Used).
City:
Publisher.

APA

 

Do your thing and I’ll do mine. (Steel, 1973)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Steel, D. (1973). Going Home. 1st
ed. New York: Pocket Books, p. 127.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title.
ed. City:
Publisher,
p.Pages
Used.

HARVARD.

g)       BOOK.

 

 

Many people are still confused over what constitutes a blog over a
website. Part of the problem is that many businesses use both, integrating
them into a single web presence. Duermyer, ‘How to start a Blog’.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, ‘Title’.

E.g.  Duermyer, R. ‘How to Start a Blog’. Blog. Blogging – What is it and Why is it Popular?, 2017. https://www.thebalance.com/blogging-what-is-it-1794405

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
‘Title’.
Blog. Publication Title, Year Published.
http://Website
URL.

CHICAGO

 

Many people are still confused over what constitutes a blog over a
website. Part of the problem is that many businesses use both, integrating
them into a single web presence.(Duermyer, 2017)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Duermyer, R. (2017). How to Start a Blog. Blogging – What is it and Why is it Popular? Retrieved 21 Jan.
2018, From https://www.thebalance.com/blogging-what-is-it-1794405

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Publication
Title. Retrieved Date Accessed, from http://Website URL

APA

 

Many people are still confused over what constitutes a blog over a
website. Part of the problem is that many businesses use both, integrating
them into a single web presence.(Duermyer, 2017)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Duermyer, R. (2017). How to Start a Blog [Blog] Blogging – What is it and
Why is it Popular? Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/blogging-what-is-it-1794405 [Accessed 21 Jan. 2018]

BIBLIOGRAPHY –  Author Surname,
Author
Initial. (Year Published). Title. [Blog] Publication
Title. Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

HARVARD.

f)       
BLOG

 

 

E.g.  Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are one of the most valuable sources
of evidence for the practice of medicine. They are also abundant. Tens of
thousands of new RCT findings are published every year. Kevin, ‘Annals of
Behavioral Medicine’.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, ‘Title’.

E.g.  Kevin, S. ‘Human Instincts’, Annals
of Behavioral Medicine, no. 1 (2015): 43. doi:10.5897/IJMMS

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
‘Title’.
Publication Title no. (Year Published):
Pages
Used. doi:DOI Number.

CHICAGO

 

E.g.  Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are one of the most valuable sources
of evidence for the practice of medicine. They are also abundant. Tens of
thousands of new RCT findings are published every year. (Kevin,2015)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Kevin, S. (2015). ‘Human Instincts’, Annals
of Behavioral Medicine, 52(1),
p.43. doi:10.5897/IJMMS

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Publication
Title, Volume number (Issue number),
Pages
Used. doi:DOI Number.

APA

 

E.g.  Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are one of the most valuable sources
of evidence for the practice of medicine. They are also abundant. Tens of
thousands of new RCT findings are published every year. (Kevin,2015)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published.)

E.g.  Kevin, S. (2015). ‘Human Instincts’, Annals
of Behavioral Medicine, 52(1), p.43.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published) ‘Title’, Publication
Title, Volume number (Issue number), p. Pages Used.

HARVARD.

e)       ACADEMIC
JOURNAL

 

E.g.  For a long time, Nairobi’s skyline has been dominated by a few mega
buildings that boast masterpiece architectural designs. They include names like
Times Tower, Kenyatta International Convention Centre and Cooperative House.
Chacha, ‘Haller Park: Life re-emerges where skyscrapers left death’.

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, ‘Title’.)

E.g.  Chacha, Gardy. ‘Haller Park: Life re-emerges where skyscrapers left death’,
2015. https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2000159379/haller-park-life-re-emerges-where-skyscrapers-left-death

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
‘Title’,
Year
Published. http://Website URL

CHICAGO

 

E.g.  For a long time, Nairobi’s skyline has been dominated by a few mega
buildings that boast masterpiece architectural designs. They include names like
Times Tower, Kenyatta International Convention Centre and Cooperative House.(Chacha,
2018).

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Publisher)

E.g.  Chacha, G. (2015). Haller Park: Life re-emerges where skyscrapers left
death. Retrieved 21 Jan. 2018 from https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2000159379/haller-park-life-re-emerges-where-skyscrapers-left-death

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Retrieved Date Accessed, from http://Website URL

APA

E.g.  For a long time, Nairobi’s skyline has been dominated by a few mega
buildings that boast masterpiece architectural designs. They include names like
Times Tower, Kenyatta International Convention Centre and Cooperative House.(Chacha,
2018).

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Publisher)

E.g.  Chacha, G. (2015). Haller Park: Life re-emerges where skyscrapers left
death. Available at: https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2000159379/haller-park-life-re-emerges-where-skyscrapers-left-death [Accesses 21 Jan. 2018]

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

HARVARD.

d)       WEB
PAGE

 

 

Industrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, and
biological interactions and interrelationships both within and between
industrial and ecological systems. Gregory, ‘Industrial Ecology: An Introduction’.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, ‘Title’.

E.g.  Gregory, A. ‘Industrial Ecology: An Introduction’. Ph.D. University of
Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, 1995.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
‘Title’.
Level, Institution
Name, Year Published.

CHICAGO

 

Industrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, and
biological interactions and interrelationships both within and between
industrial and ecological systems. (Gregory,1995)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Publisher)

E.g.  Gregory, A. (1995). Industrial Ecology: An Introduction. University of
Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Institution, City, State.

APA

 

Industrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological
interactions and interrelationships both within and between industrial and
ecological systems. (Gregory,1995)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Publisher)

E.g.  Gregory, A. (1995). Industrial Ecology: An Introduction. Ph.D.  University of Michigan School of Natural
Resources and Environment.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. Level. Institution Name.

HARVARD.

c)       THESIS

 

E.g. So many people have put themselves in deep financial
trouble when they run short of income. Kiyosaki, ‘Mind Your Own Business’.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, ‘Chapter Title’

E.g.  Kiyosaki, Robert, ‘Mind Your Own Business’. In Rich Dad Poor Dad, 73. Scottsdale: Plata Publishing, 1997.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename,
ed. ‘Chapter
Title’.
In Title,
Pages
Used. City: Publisher, Year Published.

CHICAGO

 

E.g. So many people have put themselves in deep financial
trouble when they run short of income. (Kiyosaki, 1997)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Kiyosaki, R.T. (1997). Mind Your Own Business. Rich Dad Poor Dad. (pp.73). Scottsdale, Arizona: Plata Publishing.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author Surname, Authors Initials. (Year Published). Chapter Title,
Title. (pp. Pages). City, State: Publisher.

APA

 

E.g. So many people have put themselves in deep financial
trouble when they run short of income. (Kiyosaki, 1997)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Kiyosaki, T. 1st ed., (1997). Mind Your Own Business. In: Rich Dad Poor Dad.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
ed., (Year
Published). Chapter Title. In: Title.

HAVARD

b)       BOOK
SECTION

 

 

E.g. It’s your expertise. The insights, wisdom and plain,
practical know-how you and your colleagues have accumulated in the course of
doing business. Kranz, Magnetic
Marketing Material.

REFERENCING – Author Surname, Title

E.g.  Kranz, Jonathan A. Magnetic Marketing
Material. Ebook. San
Francisco: Ciano Designs, 2007  http://www.mltcreative.com/b2b-resource-center/
ebook-cut-it-out?hsCtaTracking=0402bcf6-7765-452e-8d28-334849020a60%7C38f9e77e-cb28-4c66-9f36-9e03e6c3867d

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Forename.
Title. Ebook. City: Publisher, Year Published.
http://Website
URL.

CHICAGO

 

E.g. It’s your expertise. The insights, wisdom and plain,
practical know-how you and your colleagues have accumulated in the course of
doing business. (Kranz, 2007)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Kranz, J. (2007). Magnetic Marketing
Material. (p. 14-38). San Francisco: Ciano Designs. Retrieved from: http://www.mltcreative.com/b2b-resource-center/
ebook-cut-it-out?hsCtaTracking=0402bcf6-7765-452e-8d28-334849020a60%7C38f9e77e-cb28-4c66-9f36-9e03e6c3867d

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title
(p. Pages
Used). City: Publisher. Retrieved from http://Website URL

APA

 

E.g. It’s your expertise. The insights, wisdom and plain,
practical know-how you and your colleagues have accumulated in the course of
doing business. (Kranz, 2007)

REFERENCING – (Author Surname, Year Published)

E.g.  Kranz, J. (2007). Magnetic Marketing
Material. 1st ed. [eBook]
San Francisco: Ciano Designs, p. 14-38. Available at:

B2B Resource Center


ebook-cut-it-out?hsCtaTracking=0402bcf6-7765-452e-8d28-334849020a60%7C38f9e77e-cb28-4c66-9f36-9e03e6c3867d
[Accessed 20 Jan. 2018].

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Author
Surname, Author Initial.
(Year
Published). Title. ed. [eBook] City: Publisher, p. Pages Used.
Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

HARVARD

a)       ELECTRONIC
BOOKS

1.      
 

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