CONTEXTVelana International Airport (IATA: MLE, ICAO: VRMM) also known as Malé International Airport, previously known as Ibrahim Nasir International Airport, is the main international airport in the Maldives. It is located on Hulhulé Island in Kaafu Atoll, nearby the capital city Malé.
Today, the airport is well connected with major airports around the world, mostly serving as the main gateway to the Maldives. It is managed financially and administratively by Maldives Airports Company Limited (MACL).
The company has over 2000 employees working in the different fields. As the only leading international airport the company doesn’t have much competition locally. But there are some regional airports like Sri Lanka Bandaranaike International Airport.
Today, Velana International Airport consists of a Code-E runway, a passenger terminal with the capacity of 3 million passengers annually and offers a complete range of aeronautical services ascertaining quality and satisfaction to all its stakeholders. 35 airlines operate scheduled flights to Velana International Airport creating a passenger traffic of more than 4 million in the year 2017. This is a 5.7% growth compared to the previous year. Additionally, this airport is also home to the world’s largest seaplane operation with an average of 400 seaplane movements per day.
The airport is in the process of major infrastructure transformations worth approximately 1 billion US Dollars. With the completion of the new Runway, new International Passenger Terminal Building, Cargo Terminal, Fuel Farm, Water Supply Building, CIP/ VIP Complex, and Seaplane Terminal, it will be an entirely new transformation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.CONTEXT PAGEREF _Toc515949877 h 12.STAKEHOLDERS & STAKHOLDER GROUPS PAGEREF _Toc515949878 h 4a.Methods of Identifying the Stakeholders PAGEREF _Toc515949879 h 4i.Inter-Department & Sections Brainstorming Session: PAGEREF _Toc515949880 h 4ii.Preparing a Stakeholder Register: PAGEREF _Toc515949881 h 4iii.Create an electronic data base: PAGEREF _Toc515949882 h 5b.Key Stakeholder Groups on the basis of their power and Interest: PAGEREF _Toc515949883 h 53.CHANGE MANAGEMENT & ENGAGEMENT PLAN PAGEREF _Toc515949884 h 7a.Force Field Analysis of the Development & Implementation of Oracle Management System: PAGEREF _Toc515949885 h 7b.Oracle Management System Engagement Plan. PAGEREF _Toc515949886 h 8i)Context: PAGEREF _Toc515949887 h 8ii)Aim & Purpose: PAGEREF _Toc515949888 h 8iii)Current Situation: PAGEREF _Toc515949889 h 9iv)Engagement Goals: PAGEREF _Toc515949890 h 9v)Suggested Evaluation Criteria: PAGEREF _Toc515949891 h 9vi)Risks: PAGEREF _Toc515949892 h 9vii)Stakeholder Mapping PAGEREF _Toc515949893 h 10viii)Recommendations: PAGEREF _Toc515949894 h 10c) Methods of evaluating the effectiveness of engagement plan. PAGEREF _Toc515949895 h 114.COMMUNICATION METHODS & NEGOTIATION TECNHIQUES PAGEREF _Toc515949896 h 12a.Communication methods for dealing with the resistance: PAGEREF _Toc515949897 h 12i)Meeting: PAGEREF _Toc515949898 h 12ii)Slides & Presentations: PAGEREF _Toc515949899 h 13iii)Newsletters: PAGEREF _Toc515949900 h 13iv)Online Gantt Charts: PAGEREF _Toc515949901 h 13b.Negotiation Techniques to eliminate the conflicts: PAGEREF _Toc515949902 h 13i)Confrontation: PAGEREF _Toc515949903 h 14ii)Compromising & negotiation: PAGEREF _Toc515949904 h 14iii)Soothing or accommodating: PAGEREF _Toc515949905 h 14iv)Forcing or dominating: PAGEREF _Toc515949906 h 14v)Avoiding or withdrawing: PAGEREF _Toc515949907 h 145.CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc515949908 h 15References PAGEREF _Toc515949909 h 16
This assignment is the
STAKEHOLDERS & STAKHOLDER GROUPSStakeholders can be defined as a person or a group of people who are directly or indirectly affected by the actions, objectives & policies of organization. CITATION Bus18 l 1033 (Dictionary, 2011)Methods of Identifying the StakeholdersIdentifying the stakeholders is vital for any organization. In identifying the stakeholders every organization should think broader. Rather than focusing on key stakeholders who are directly affected, it’s very important to focus on secondary stakeholders.
There are number of ways Maldives Airports Company Ltd can use to identify the stakeholders related to the Development ; Implementation of Oracle Management System Project. Using different methods will yield to best results. The process of identifying the key stakeholders we should take account the risk of missing key stakeholders ; find ways to tackle the issues.
There are common ways we can use to identify the stakeholders of the project:CITATION Fos07 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)Inter-Department ; Sections Brainstorming Session:The first thing we can do is to gather all the department ; section heads ; prepare a list of individuals or groups who are related to the project ; who have an interest in it, benefits from it, or those who feel alienated by the project. CITATION Fos07 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)By doing this we can identify the stakeholders related to the Development ; Implementation of Oracle Management System without going to an external source.
The available resources internally is the initial step we can take to find our stakeholders. The employees who are the part of the project may already have good relations with the key people ; parties who have an interest in the project. By using these we can make a comprehensive list of the stakeholders. For example, the company already have an Oracle System with all the key parties details uploaded, with the information it will be easy to find the relevant information of the key parties involved in the project
Preparing a Stakeholder Register:As we have already prepared the list of the stakeholders, now we can gather the information about them.
By preparing a detailed stakeholder register, we will have all the necessary information like: Contact information; Background Details; Organization; Expectations, interests, ; requirements etc.
These information will help the Project Manager to prioritize whom to contact when needed.
Even though initial stage of brainstorming is informal it is important to systemize the process in order to control it. It’s also important to collect information like phone numbers & email addresses.
Create an electronic data base:CITATION Sta11 l 1033 (FHI 360 Headquarters, 2011) States that ‘Create a shared database where you can store contact information and other relevant details about the stakeholders.’ By creating an electronic data base will help to store the all gathered information of stakeholders.
A data base with access to all team members will make the communication process easy and efficient. It can also be used in the future projects.
We can develop a database where everyone has easy access to the stakeholder information. It’s also important to appoint someone from the project team to manage the stakeholder database ; update it when any changes required.
Key Stakeholder Groups on the basis of their power and Interest:center4562724Figure 1: The Mendelow Matrix CITATION Men87 l 1033 (Mendelow, 1987)00Figure 1: The Mendelow Matrix CITATION Men87 l 1033 (Mendelow, 1987)6987761118235Power
11595654160161I n t e r e s t
00I n t e r e s t
“Stakeholder mapping can help you to understand and prioritize the different demands of the various stakeholder groups who are affected by, or affect the project.”CITATION Fos172 l 1033 (Foster, 2017). The mapping will help us to analyze the stakeholder expectations ; the power they have on the Oracle Management System Project. The Figure 1 shows how we can categorize our stakeholders according to their influence ; interest to the project.
High Power, Low Interest
Sponsor (HR Manager)Regulator (IT Manager)
Legal Team High Power, High Interest
Top ManagementProject teamManagerBusiness Analyst
Low Power, Low Interest
Help DeskSystem Admins Low Power, High Interest
Internal Users (Employees)DeveloperSuppliersTrainerTester
According to Mendelow we have to give special attention to those who have high power in the project. For example legal team may have low interest in the project but we have to make sure that the rules ; policies are being followed while we carry out different task of the project to keep them satisfied. The Project Manager should work closely with the legal team to identify their need of involvement.
Meantime, Top management who have high power ; high interest should be monitored closely ; should be well informed about the progress of the project. Stakeholders with low power ; low interest like the Help Desk, we can keep engaging with them when the need arise.
The Mendelow matrix is vital tool to identify the communication process within the various stakeholders. But it may also cause a situation where we may keep more close relationship with certain group of stakeholders. We have to understand that the model can be used as a starting point to identify stakeholders’ wants & needs, power & interest, going to change various stages of the project.
As the consultant, I would keep a close relationship with all our stakeholders with a same level of effort to minimize the delay of the project schedule.
CHANGE MANAGEMENT & ENGAGEMENT PLANForce Field Analysis of the Development & Implementation of Oracle Management System:”A culture is not a painted picture; it is a living process, composed of countless social interactions. Like a river whose form and velocity are determined by the balance of those forces that tend to make the water flow faster, and the friction that tends to make the water flow more slowly the cultural pattern of a people at a given time is maintained by a balance of counteracting forces.” CITATION Lew48 l 1033 (Lewin, 1948)Force Field Analysis was created by Lewin to use in his social psychologist work, however today it is used to make business decision making process. The tool is a useful to identify the force for & against the decision making & the implementation of the project.
3570605499745Forces against change (Restraining Forces)
0Forces against change (Restraining Forces)
In order to find out driving & restraining forces we have carried out a detailed force field analysis of the project.
0-635Forces for change (Driving Forces)
0Forces for change (Driving Forces)
left25731Web Based Platform
0Web Based Platform
right2540Long training classes with reduced time
00Long training classes with reduced time
23749004794250Development & Implementation of Oracle Management System
00Development & Implementation of Oracle Management System
right3810Staff against the new technology
00Staff against the new technology
left26532Improve the speed of the internal working process
0Improve the speed of the internal working process
right91633Staff fear of losing the job
00Staff fear of losing the job
left23688Increase the level of output
0Increase the level of output
right144808Increase in the cost
00Increase in the cost
-63523661Reduce the paperwork & create a database for all
0Reduce the paperwork & create a database for all
right249031Disruption due to slow internet speed
00Disruption due to slow internet speed
39757711007Figure 2: Force Field Analysis Diagram CITATION Fos173 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)00Figure 2: Force Field Analysis Diagram CITATION Fos173 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)2948084454466Total: 12
The analysis will help to:
Make a decision whether we carry out the implementation of the system;
Promote the chances of success of the project by weakening the restraining forces;
Promote the new ideas which can help the successful implementation of the change;
Find the vital stakeholder groups & their influence in the project;
Tackle the target groups influence on the project
After carrying out the analysis we have identified that restraining forces are more compared to the driving forces on the implementation of the system. We have also identified the factors which have the high impact on the change.
In order to successfully implement the change, the organization (Maldives Airports Company Ltd) needs to develop strategies to minimize the driving forces. As the consultant I have highlighted the following changes to the PM:
To carry out the training session for the staffs who fear losing their jobs on timely manner to eliminate the fear of the new system;
Meet the staffs & provide the information relating the project & aware them why the change is necessary for the company;
To make arrangements to upgrade the network issues that might arise which will be a key issue;
By overcoming these challenges will help to successfully implement the ERP system.
Oracle Management System Engagement PlanContext:The Oracle Management System Implementation was informed to all the employees by the MD of the company in December 2017 by an internal memo issued. The purpose is to effectively manage the company resources while minimizing the waste & provide a better services to the stakeholders.
Aim & Purpose:This stakeholder engagement plan seeks to identify how effective engagement can increase the service & output of the company.
The strategy is designed for use by the Project team, MD, Co-chair & end users. It mainly focuses on the following key areas:
Improving the work & recognition of the Oracle Management System within the organization;
Enabling a better communication process within the organization via a connected network
Reducing paper work & storage system & build a more environmentally friend working place.
Current Situation:Currently, all the works are doing manually within all the departments & are not integrated within the departments.
Engagement Goals:The key engagement goal is to enhance organizational & system awareness, ensuring that all the works are to be carried out within a system, communication & engagement becomes an integral part of the team’s work. Communication process ; engagement should inform of all team activities, ; be built into projects to start for maximum impact.
All stakeholders should be involved with:
Inputting into Oracle in some way;
Be encouraged to involve ; manage the implementation process;
The Oracle team will be well trained with all the resources to combine engagement ; communications into everything they do, ; to make impact more effectively. The team will be trained in both the purpose ; operation of the activity.
Suggested Evaluation Criteria:There are number of key indicators of the viewing the success ; effect of the Oracle System, including:
Improved stakeholder usage, recognition ; understanding of the system
More effective two way communications ; comments from stakeholders how well they are using the system.
Positive outcomes from the system for the stakeholders of their requirement;
Managing ; improved performance process of individuals ; the organization.
Risks:The main risk involved is the resistance from key stakeholders against the implementation of the system due to the lack of the awareness of the Oracle System. Also the limitations the system might have affecting the organization performance. Sometimes the limitations of the knowledge of the trainers ; their ability to perform their role. Additionally miss communication within the team might lead to conflicts.
Stakeholder Mapping5651506350Level of Effort Required
0Level of Effort Required
36639506350Application of Effort
0Application of Effort
279400177800Colleagues from departments ; others with a general interest
Advises ; informs Keeps Informed
00Colleagues from departments ; others with a general interest
Advises ; informs Keeps Informed
562610045085002527300254635Key Decision Makers
00Key Decision Makers
2362200132080Oracle project team
00Oracle project team
right7620Ensure Everything works perfectly
00Ensure Everything works perfectly
20193003810Direct ; Advises
00Direct ; Advises
114300143510Figure 3: Oracle Impact-Effort Diagram CITATION Fos174 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)00Figure 3: Oracle Impact-Effort Diagram CITATION Fos174 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)
Recommendations:# Recommendations Intended Outcome
Oracle team to consider engaging with stakeholders via part-time employment, consultancy hire, an expert to train staffs ; to engage other requirements. To improve the oracle initial kick start activities ; provide the required professional support. The aim is to bring the needed skills which are currently not available.
Analysis team to map stakeholders into groups showing the level of engagement To give project leader the tools needed for effective engagement. This also applicable to oracle level communication
Analysis team will to develop a toolkit which help end users to choose which tools should be used to communicate each stakeholder group To make sure engagement ; communication process is integrated within all Oracle activities
c) Methods of evaluating the effectiveness of engagement plan.At this stage we have already identified our key stakeholders ; categorized based on their influence. We have also put in action of our engagement plan in place ; ready for evaluate its effectiveness.
It’s vital for any project manager to evaluate their activity end of any project. Through evaluation only we can measure that the objectives are met & we are dealing with right stakeholders.
There are many methods we can use to evaluate the effectiveness of the engagement plan. By considering the evaluation early on we can ensure that the evaluation is based upon the aims & desired outcomes of the project & the engagement plan. CITATION Inv05 l 1033 (Involve, 2005)There are several ways we can use to capture the effectiveness engagement, from assessments to willingness to engage, to feedback forms, to interview, or meetings designed specifically to test perceptions.
We can also use a stakeholder to understand the position of the stakeholders by grouping them into two groups: assets & liabilities. By time we can identify those stakeholders who have moved from liabilities to assets & we can find out the works required to be done to keep them as assets & concentrate on the liabilities. CITATION Fos175 l 1033 (Foster, 2017)COMMUNICATION METHODS & NEGOTIATION TECNHIQUESCommunication methods for dealing with the resistance:During the process of force field analysis we have identified the restraining forces are more than the driving forces indicating that we have resistance among the key stakeholders to the implementation of the new oracle system.
In order to deal with the resistance to the change we have to prepare a communication plan where we can establish an effective two way communication process across all the stakeholders to minimize the failure of meeting the objectives. The below communication spectrum can show how effective communication impact the stakeholders to overcome the possible resistance & working together can effectively implement the change. CITATION Pra18 l 1033 (Juneja, n.d.)36385505080Commitment
Figure: 4 Communication Spectrum CITATION Pra18 l 1033 (Juneja, n.d.)A communication plan is vital part of dealing the resistance addressing all the issues of the stakeholders.
Communication is important when we try to raise the awareness among the staffs for the required change. There are many ways we can communicate with stakeholders for the potential resistance to the implementation of the system:
Meeting:One of the most common way we can meet the stakeholders is arranging meetings with them to discuss the issues related to the oracle implementation. By meeting we can face to face discuss the concerns & make arrangements to overcome the resistance to the change. This way we can directly point them out the need for the change. We can make them understand by explaining how the process will take place & we can get the feedback on the spot. CITATION 7Wa08 l 1033 (Anon., 2008)Slides & Presentations:Another way to communicate with the stakeholders are by making a presentation to show the stakeholders how the project is going with the brief details. By showing them the details will help to minimize the fear they have of losing their jobs or the fear of the new technology.
A detailed presentation with visuals for the target stakeholders makes it easy for them to understand & deliver the message. By this way we can deliver the message to a large group of target audience with a powerful slides.
Newsletters:Newsletter is another we can use to communicate our target audience. Newsletters & intranet is good because we can deliver the message to our target audience as a whole. The drawback of this method is its one way communication where the immediate feedback is limited.
By using this method we have to make sure delivering the right message which the target audience can understand as this method of communication has a broad reach. So delivering the right message to the right audience at the right time is very important when we use newsletter. CITATION PRO15 l 1033 (Anon., 2015)Online Gantt Charts:With development of technology & internet, online tools are more common way of communicating with stakeholders. With this method stakeholders can access the information easily whenever they need to check an update regarding the project. CITATION PRO05 l 1033 (Anon., 2005)The disadvantage of this method is that everyone won’t be understand what they are looking for in it. It’s also a one way communication & someone might have to explain the stakeholder how to access it to obtain the information.
Negotiation Techniques to eliminate the conflicts:Conflict represents clashes of interdependent people who perceive different interest of goals, aim and values.CITATION Put87 l 1033 (L & Pool, 1987) CITATION Won05 l 1033 (Wong, 2005) identified that “conflicts involve: manpower resources, equipment and facilities, capital expenditures, cost, technical opinions and trade-offs, priorities of requirements, administrative procedures, scheduling, responsibilities and penalty clashes.”
During the implementation process of oracle system there might be possible internal conflicts arise among internal stakeholders like end users, managers & IT team about how the initial stage of implementation of each module should be carried out. There is also chance of external conflicts from suppliers & customers (external stakeholders) with regard to the complication the system might arise & the level of support the Oracle team can provide when needed.
So in order to eliminate the possible outcome of conflicts we have to negotiate to resolve it. Negotiations can be defined as “a dynamic process among interdependent & self-interested parties with different backgrounds, which aims to reach an agreement that satisfies preferences & constraints of the involved parties.” CITATION Mou06 l 1033 (Mouzas, 2006) CITATION Syc10 l 1033 (Sycara & Dai, 2010)During the process of a project implementation conflicts are an inevitable outcome hence we have to ways that it can be resolved by applying different negotiation techniques. According to CITATION Che99 l 1033 (Cheung & Chuah, 1999), CITATION Ker09 l 1033 (Kerzner, 2009), CITATION Rah02 l 1033 (Rahim, 2002) five methods can be applied to resolve conflicts.
The conflict is managed through a problem solving orientation & gives the best solution (win-win solution) to the involved parties. In case of resistance to the proposed implementation of oracle system, PM can arrange meetings with the subjected stakeholders & listen their concerns & give orientation how the process is going to implement & their concerns will be attended;
Compromising & negotiation:
This technique adopts “a give & take” approach & provides acceptable agreement for all parties. For those stakeholders who are afraid of losing their jobs due to the change the PM can meet them & discuss the trainings will be given to all staffs how to use the system. This way the PM can win their support to implement the project.
Soothing or accommodating:
This method tries to moderate the negative atmosphere by focusing on parties “common ground”.
Forcing or dominating:
Parties use this technique to enforce their outlooks against to the other parties but unfortunately with “win – lose” solutions;
Avoiding or withdrawing:
Parties are unaware of the subject of conflict or unwilling to resolve it.
It’s vital to PM to consider all the negative outcome of a conflict ; to study all the negotiation techniques that can be applied in relation to the project to give best possible solutions to the project stakeholders.
CONCLUSIONAfter analyzing all the possible stages of the project it’s important to the organization to consider all the possible outcome of the implementation of the new oracle system.
There are key points I would like to highlight:
The management should consider the possible interaction techniques with external stakeholders like local suppliers who are not very familiar with a system like Oracle.
An alternative communication module for external stakeholders to make the implementation process easier.
The senior management should give the Project team the full authority to carry out the project as proposed.
As conflicts are part of the project life cycle it’s important to consider other possible techniques for conflict management like Clayton’s “Soft conflict of negotiations”.
Finally it’s top management responsibility of decision making in relation to the ERP system implementation ; intensify the oracle system will have a better understanding of the company’s change during the process.
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