Control is a primary dimension in the second theoretical concept which influential demand-control model of work stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990).The External Demands and Restrictions factor apply to outer circumstances that influence a person’s work and would cause troubled conscience. Glasberg, Eriksson, S., ; Norberg, A. (2007). Kasl (1989) and Parkes (1989) pointed out that explanation of the control depends on the particular focus of respective studies.
According to Parkes (1989),there is at least three ways to determine control in the working environment can be identified: “(1.) control as an objective characteristic of the work situation, reflecting the extent to which the design of work tasks … allows opportunities for control; (2.) control as a subjective evaluation reflecting an individual’s judgement about the extent to which his or her work situation is amenable to control; and (3.) control as a generalized belief on the part of an individual about the extent to which important outcomes … are controllable” (Parkes, 1989).
Control (sometimes termed autonomy or latitude) denotes the extent that individuals feel they can directly influence their environments. Employees experiencing a high degree of control at work have the opportunity to self-manage in that they have the freedom to exercise their personal initiative and judgment by deciding what their work goals and responsibilities should be (i.e., which tasks or projects they should work on), how their work should be performed (i.e., which methods should be used), and which schedule they will use to carry out various work tasks (Dwyer ; Ganster, 1991; Frese, Kring, Soose, ; Zempel, 1996; Hackman ; Oldham, 1980; Jackson, Wall, Martin, ; Davids, 1993; Karasek, 1979). A high degree of control at work often implies that employees participate in, and thus have influence over, superiors’ decisions that affect their work (Frese et al., 1996; Spector, 1986).
The concept of individual job control has been developed primarily within the job stress literature. Job control is described as the individual’s ability control at his or her work when working (Karasek, 1979). Researchers have used themselves report to measures the decision authority on the job to measure control. Job control is distinct from employee participation because control is limited in scope to decisions that facilitate one’s own job performance.
Karasek (1979) defined job control is the range which making the job’s decision and chosen the suitable knowledge and skills to complete the job. According to Karasek’s model, jobs make many demands induce a state of arousal, which if coupled with little job control, prevent the selection of an appropriate coping response and lead to a host of physiological problems. Warr (1990) found that psychosocial work environment literature have shown that damaging health effects of low job control especially for men.
In addition, job control is the objective permissions of control, which itself can be handle the stress effectively if the individual makes a subjective assessment of personal capacity to exercise that control (Schaubroeck & Merritt, 1997). Higher job control and self-efficacy situations maybe optimal. Job control is favourable to provide confident and opportunity for individual to look for constructive feedback (Litt, 1988). When provides selections between more or less job control, they prefer more control, as they enables to reduce emotional dissonance.
Job control has been directly and positively related to job performance (Greenberger, Strasser, Cummings and Dunham, 1989) and it has been found to medium the effects of other variables on performance (Orpen, 1994). Low control jobs may be particularly suitable for the effective provision of supervisory support and support from co-workers. When personal control is perceived to be low, the worker can be expected to look to others (co-workers and the supervisor) to assist in ensuring effective performance.
Perceived control at work always studied the job characteristic. This concept may be described as the employees’ perception of their power to choose among choices of work. Perceived control can be understood in relation to the research tradition of autonomy or refer to degree to how the individuals can control when doing their work (Hackman ; Oldham, 1980). Besides, Spector (1986) stated that higher perceived control, higher levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, participation, and the employees’ well-being (Fletcher & Jones, 1993; Karasek, 1979).