During Play by Doing or Alternative?
Today, children are mistreated during “play time” by placing in front of a computer screen or television because of this children cognitive and motor development has been robbed. This paper will explore how much parents are unaware of how they maltreat their children from early stage of growth through television that destructively influences children’s development by not actively interacting with them in the correct manner for example playing. In an article by Russian psychiatrist Lev Vygotsky states: “In play a child is always above his average age, above his daily behavior; in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself. As in the focus of a magnifying glass, play contains all developmental tendencies in a condensed form; in play it is as though the child were trying to jump above the level of his normal behavior” (Vygostky1967, as cited in Bodrova and Leong, 215, p. 16).
Vygotsky suggest that play is critical for children development and lastly, he focus in play in a social context (Bodrova, E., ; Leong, D. J. 2015 p. 371). His views on play is to explain social, cognitions, self-concept, attention and motor skills. An unique way Vygotsky enlightens that kids are more likely to connect easier through their peers and developing languages using play more than how they will connect with parents who maltreats them unconsciously. Vygotsky approached is to used language skills to build a way of learning and developing the cognitive area more powerful. One way of doing such is to manipulate things that may be hard for children by the help of parents. A way in which this can be done is to use play to manipulate things that may seem hard to a child. However, this may be challenging for parents to approach this situation because they are not sure or conscious of how their child may react most times. An example, a parent may want to alert a child to be more aware of their surroundings so they would either ring the phone to see if the child is easily aware, but it can also damage the child cognitive to always expect the parent is ringing the phone this is can be interpreted to be mistreatment in someone else eyes. Vygotsky also view that play can enhance children to become more alert in cognitive thinking and motor skills easier because they will be more active in their surrounding easier. More than sitting in front of the television screen. Vygotsky also believes that play helps children to become stronger and alert. One may give an example, standing at an early age learning to sit up in parent’s hand, then holding on until they can move by themselves is a sign of independence. Some parents do not consider a baby should learn these little interactions instead they place them in front of the television.
During this progress of infancies and toddler’s development parents are known to maltreat their children unconsciously at the ages of “twelve months of age, nine and fifteen months, twelve and twenty-four months of age toddlers and finally four and five-year-old” (Valentino, K., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., ; Rogosch, F. A. 2016 p. 474). According to Valentino, parents pushing babies constantly into play during the time of school or in the home. Impartial to build their social, cognitive and motor skills up where toddlers and infancies are force to use the words “no”, “yes”, “maybe so” or “no I cannot” when they are not versatile in language development around these ages (Valentino et al., 2016 p.474). Once more children’s motor development and cognitive takes time to develop but overall is very important to children growth while playing and gaining the necessary skills as they grow easily in areas.
Yet, Wilke and Cash identifies that examining child welfare system have substance abuse issues that parents have maltreated their children about 60%. This is because of families that come to the attention of the child welfare system also have substance abuse issues (Cash, S. J., & Wilke, D. J. 2003 p.392). Furthermore, mothers who neglect their children are tend to experience more social isolation, not only but more insular, have increased depression, and have poorer parenting skills according to Wilke and Cash. As research continued it shows that parents who neglect their child tend to have fewer prosocial social support systems and have fewer positive interaction skills Cash, S. J., & Wilke, D. J. (2003). This issue can be seen through poverty areas and consequently parents may become less interactive with their children or over bearing with interactive time which can lead to depression for children. An article by the name of The American Academy of Pediatrics (2011) article explains that as technology expand at the ages of two years old should not be place in front of the television. Slight does the caregiver take this as something not important. As an alternative, it tends to drag parents and infancies communication apart. This normally leads children from cognitive development such as language development where they become anti-social, and motor skills will not develop in the proper way by been very active which they become very weak. This will entail that a parent duty is called for action more than maltreating. A way in which Vygotsky would suggest that it is best if a caregiver gives the child a creative activity, and keep an eye on them as much as possible rather than lodging then in front of a television. However, this does not happen as Vygotsky would think in the article.
Vygotsky would rather that a caregiver would provide puzzles from books or puzzles that will use their motor skills to help their cognition development which is a form play time not only this likely to have any maltreatment occurring unconsciously. Instead it will develop caregiver and child attachment. An example of identifying how a parent or any caregiver can interact more with a child than overreacting by giving a child an coloring book trying to form their letters it helps with thinking ability, environment is not stimulation unlike puzzles (AAP, 2011). If parents are not present, in learning then it is not social according to Vygotsky interacting with young children helps children have a bond with their parents not be mistreated. However, some parents are not able to place together the difference with simple playing and rough playing because of the variation in cultures. Some parents are more likely to place stress on children more than adjusting the environment for the child to gain knowledge by following their parent foot step. As well as, play helps with developing with language skills and break away from maltreating the child by not ordering the child around.
Another individual may come to an analogy that caregivers need to reproach how screen time negatively affects children areas of development such as social development and cognitive. Additional area of which children cognitive development is affected during adult content is beyond children’s comprehension for example, the Edwards family may allow their son Alex who is the same age as John is likely to watch Family Guy, but he does not comprehend the context of the show instead it shows the cognitive area of the frontal lobe is not yet develop fully (Christakis, D. A. 2009). However, there is an opposite view to this can decrease attention, and negatively affecting cognition of children process thought. However, an example of Thomas family might hide topics from, five-year-old John because he is not capable to comprehend that language yet (Christakis, D. A. 2009).
This can be another way of parenting manipulation of mistreatment by the idea of play time is reduce by not interacting in child development by doing productive activities therefore leads to watching the television with their child. Caregivers that only believes in television also have a negative approach to play which will show why play is important because the child would have learned sex in a different way example, play date by using dolls would not seem like sex it would be interpret as family expanding and what each person role is in life. This is one way of why babies and toddlers should learn from play not screens (Christakis, D. A. 2009). Although in the early years screens was used by a caregiver to reward a child or children. This proves that parents do not spare the time to engage in the correct setting of play time nor television time it is discovered that parents tend to find unnecessary solutions to bring awareness to children for example drinking alcohol or smoking around them that may influence the child that is right to do so as they get older once again this can be led to maltreating the child in the wrong environment.
As children become more aware of how their parents interact with them during play. An example, of a parent assisting their child or children with their motor skill as an alternative parent tend to place a child or children in front of the television. This is one way to show how parents are conscious of maltreating a child. Not only in the article An Ecological Model of Maternal Substance Abuse and Child Neglect: Issues, Analyses, and Recommendations by Wilke and Cash in 2003 states how a parent maltreat a child without any intention such as been a substance abusers they are more likely to failed often of following up with court mandates and more likely to be referred from kids by placing their child in foster homes. Which influence kids to do drugs as they get older. This goes to show how silly mistakes can lead to children not having the correct environment to focus on which is another way of mistreatment because of depression symptoms may occur from the pressure form parents.
Another point is even if a parent or guardian believe screen is best they could at least use Play station or CDs to play educational things. Otherwise things to be active for example dance which will assist the child having a correct weight and cognitive skills will develop as well. If not doing these things the child will eventually will be affected. It could also lead to letting the child understanding that screens are used for entertainment when they have done something good or it is a form of reward for certain amount of time. Not to just watch because it is there or to shut everything out. Once more screen or television should have limit unless it is something enlightening it will take up more time once the child or children are retaining what they have learn. This is proven by Vygotsky. Whereas if the child is missing that activity they could be given another task and stay could be reproach in timely manner according to the caregiver choice. continue screen a next day. This one way to prove that parent is not only reducing the idea of mistreatment unconsciously, but will reassure the child that play is something fun and will be in their daily life to develop more skills than planting themselves in front of a screen because of the parent stress. One way to implement these properly with the parent aware of maltreatment is given a child at least forty to sixty minutes of play time. Which will enhance them to meet new people in the park and develop language skills more and new things as well. An example of such is girls would go to the mall and walk around or swimming something that will have them engage which is some form of playing. Although, boys should be able to go to baseball, basketball matches with a male figure where he will be more active which is called playing.
Statistics have proven by Anderson, Economons and Must (2008) had caregivers report children daily television time computer use or play by 2964 U.S. children aged four to twelve years. Children were then classified as engaging in low active play defined as active play 6 times or less per week an or high screen time was defined as more than 2 to 3 hours per day. For children age 4 to 11 years, 37.3 % had low levels of active play, 65 % had high screen time, and 26.3 % had both these behaviors. Children who were classified as, Low Active play and High screen time were older age, female gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, and having a BMI-for-age 95th percentile of the CDC growth reference. Overall, of children reported to have physical activity and screen time behaviors that are inconsistent with CDC guidelines (Anderson, et.al., 2008). AAP (2011) state that if children decreased active sixty-five percent of them four to eleven in the U.S. have screen time which now place them at risk for obesity.
Self-Concept Bowker (2006) introduce as children move into adolescence their participation in sport decreases. Which he also, found that not only does this lead to weight gain but decrease play time negatively because of not interacting socially and language barriers becomes a huge area of decrease. This may have occurred of the fact that parents were not engaged often as they should which a positive and negative outcome to occur.
Vygotsky views on Children’s Play by Elena Bodrova and Deborah J. Leong identifies on (Bodrova, & Leong 2015) states that “a childhood played a special role in the cultural- historical theory of human culture and biosocial development made famous…”. Which illustrates that teachers interact with children mostly throughout the day. So therefore, it is the responsibility for teachers to teach students how to play in the correct ways. One may disagree because of the laws that may come with how teachers attend to children which can lead teachers to mistreat a child not intentionally but is done because of barriers. Often many teachers are then warned about the barriers how they can affect play which comes with childhood development, cultural-historical psychology, Vygotsky, preschool play and especially zone of proximal development. Vygotsky explains that culture plays a significant rule in a child’s life because they might not get the experience or allowed to play, but to just screen books not of to be computer or television. Play is sense to be a waste of time in some homes especially, a single parent with more than one child. These leads children to develop faster and not experiencing the right way a child should be able to grow and mistreatment. Where their cognitive processes such as memory, perception, thinking and attention is not developing in the correct manner because of cultural aspect or family responsibilities (Bodrova et., al 2015). Therefore, toddlers would not get to achieve over their thoughtless oversensitive behavior. One should not misinterpret the theory of Vygotsky he simply wants children to grow with create imaginary situation then act on it and follow set of rules that are specific a simple to interpret for example a card game (Bowker, 2006). Overall, play is a transitional stage in which children learn to think and perform well in stage of their lives. So, overall, playing can be broken down in different categories which Vygotsky as proven (Bowker 2006).
Play is proven to assist babies and toddlers to become very skill or aware of what is around them and how to become stronger as they gain more knowledge. Once more play is a tool for kids so taking it away as caregiver will only leave that child to suffer in early life or in their adolescence time. Another article states that “Although video games are often associated with sedentary behaviors, active gaming is a new genre that requires children to become physically active while playing the games” (Hansen, ; Sanders, 2010). This article tends to have a theory of active gaming can be used in 21st century physical education class to increase children’s physical activity levels. Also, argues that physical activity reduces when children become adults. However, it is recommended that each child as at least sixty minutes of play time each day especially the use of caregiver guidance and giving the caregiver assurance of how they interact with children, but many children in the 21st century clearly do not meet this requirement. United States require that physical education should be incorporate in elementary and middle schools but unfortunately most times that is not the case. Sixty-five per cent of children aged 9-13 in the U.S. states that they are not physically active outside of school hours (Davis, McKenzie, Pate, Robinson, Stone &Young 2006). This article used teachers to prove that even though they might incorporate play in the school session students tend to engage themselves to technology. So, it becomes a choice not really a force. It is left towards how students would like to use their physical activities (Hansen, & Sanders 2010).
Theories of play is varied in different aspect if infants and toddler’s life. In some areas consist of cognitive development, motor skills and many others, which overall tend to lead infancies development grasping everything they can, but with the help of caregivers. Many people misunderstood meaning of play and screening. “Play is giving the child a better chance to develop speech and the ability to understand difference with individuals then incorporate within themselves of different limits of play” (Henricks, 2015). An example is that a child can play by doing mathematics in a group activity where they not only play but incorporate knowledge in a new way and have some part of screening but in an effective way. In the article (Henricks 2015), who as identify that play something is develop in our genes and pleasure seeking with a claim that “play is also a pattern to ego mastery, a control of libidinal desires that becomes a source of pleasure” (Henricks, 2015). This regains children to enjoy playing the social way with their activities with their family and peers (Henricks, 2015).
Subsequently, play is not something that is train but has guidance that helps with children growth and awareness with parents use of patience. Still, culture and the cognitive area can be a great effect of how play is taken. Although, play is seen to improve children cognitive development and more parents are not conscious of some choices they have made during play time which is proven across these articles. This tends to show higher development form play time than screening a child and less risk of obesity, self-center or not been social at all.
During Play by Doing or Alternative?