Every woman who lives with different lifestyle will experience the phenomenon of menopause. Together with the lifestyle, it is essential to understand the physical, emotional, cultural and psychological domain that surrounds the menopausal transition to gain better knowledge and understanding of this event in women’s life. Lifestyle factors can affect the onset of menopause (Calimbas and Medina, 2018). Risk factors such as unhealthy diet, physical activity, tobacco use, age and heredity are major risk factors to most chronic diseases associated with menopause.
Moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced psychosocial and physical menopause symptoms in perimenopausal Korean women. Kim et al., 2014
Increased level of sports and exercise participation reduced psychological and physical symptoms as wella a sexual symptoms. Active living was inversely related to physical symptoms. (Borkoles, 2015; Shafaie, 2015)
Shafaie et. Al., (2015) has pointed out the importance of physical activity. Inactivity and inappropriate physical activity are the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and osteoporosis.. However, there are other studies claiming otherwise. Whitcom et.al (2007), has found out that increased physical activity increases the incidence of vasomotor (physical) symptoms that includes hot flushes and night sweating. Musa (2015), also claimed the same thing when he assessed the intensity of active living activities through KPAS and found out that it has no sufficient health benefits. Moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced psychosocial and physical menopause symptoms in perimenopausal Korean women. Kim et al., 2014
Musa’s study (2015) has also found out that marital status, lower education level, parity and chronic disease were significantly associated with poor quality of life in menopausal women. Higher education and a healthier lifestyle with regular exercise are associated with better quality of life (Musa et al, 2015 and Medina and Calimbas, 2018).
Osteoporosis has risk factors that contribute to the process which includes cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol use, inactivity and decline in estrogen levels (Calimbas and Medina, 2018). In addition to dietary factors and physical activity, as discussed above, excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco use increase one’s risk for osteoporosis.41 Regular consumption of more than 2 alcoholic drinks a day increases this risk, possibly because alcohol can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb calcium. The exact role of tobacco in osteoporosis is not clearly understood; however, evidence does suggest that tobacco use contributes to weak bones.
Personality can increase health care utilization and negative health behaviors, having poor diet, smoking, and loss of physical activity. In the study of Borkoles et.al. (2015), they did not found out significant differences in active living or being active physically in relation to personality.
Smoking has been associated with increased vasomotor symptoms (Medina and Calimbas, 2018). Heavy smokers can cause early menopause (Zhao et al., 2018). In Musa’s study, it showed a significant impact on symptoms. Few studies show no relevance of smoking to menopausal symptoms (Janeri et al, 2016, and Abezadeh-Kathroudi, 2012).
Alcohol drinking – three or fewer drinks per week- can delay the onset of menopause as compared to non-drinkers. This was evidenced by the study conducted by Taneri et.al (2016). Abstainers from alcohol have shown higher odds of irregular and short cycle. Taneri et.al., also reported that there is an increase in alcohol consumption on pre-menopausal women. Some studies on the other hand, reported that alcohol consumption can decrease the risk of CVD, DM and breast cancer. Women are suggested to drink 10 g/ day of alcohol or up to 1 drink per day for women according to the Women’s daily alcohol consumption guidelines. ( https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm)
Alcohol consumptoion and its impact on health are more complex that the volume measured at one point in time. Patterns of drinking alcohol have different effect on health. Janari et al. (2016), mentioned that binge drinking has been associated with more adverse health outcomes. No study has assessed the association of alcohol drinking patterns and menopause onset yet.
Working women in comparison to those housewives and not working has perceived fewer symptoms with a better quality of life. This might be due to the perception that working has been a form of distraction from their symptoms (Musa, 2017). Sedentary lifestyle can cause a decreased functional and work ability (Kolu et al, 2015). Vigorous level of activity can increase work productivity. The type of work also plays a vital role in health as evidenced by the results of Asmari, et.al (2016).
Unhealthy lifestyle could increase the incidence and severity of menopausal symptoms. Moilaven et.al (2010) and Asmari et al (2016), have found out that unhealthy lifestyle is linked with higher incidence of and severity of symptoms. It is found out as well that this lifestyle could lead to high prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis (Samera Ali Rizvi)
No association between sociodemographic factors and climacteric symptoms has been found in the study of Calimba and Medina (2018).
In contrast to Musa’s (2015) and Tsehay’s (2014) studies, marital status showed more symptoms for married women in Saudi Arabia.
Many of the serious complications that women face during menopause are caused by their own poor lifestyles and their lack of knowledge about self-care (Heindrich, 2014; Kim Lee and Johnson , 2015; Asmari, et al., 2016). To minimize the effect of unhealthy behaviors, health promotion is an important key especially in adhering to good health.
Socio-cultural-economic factors plays in different lifestyle behavior worldwide. Variation in the levels of nutrition, physical activity, spiritual growth, healthy lifestyle behaviors, stress management and social relationships were noted by Asmari et al (2016) and Mahdipour (2018).
Severity of menopausal of symptoms happen regardless of BMI and menopausal status (Calimbas and Medina, 2018).
Menopausal women has been found out to have a moderate lifestyle (Shafaie et al, 2017). Lifestyle patterns and adaptations have been an important issue in dealing with menopausal women. Healthy lifestyle has been essential for having a healthy aging transition (Mahdipour, 2018). Regardless of Qu
Among women who experienced menopause during the observed time frame, less education and sedentary lifestyle were also significant factors in metabolic risk differences, showing 1.7 times and 1.59 times greater risk, respectively. Such differences in education, income, and sedentary lifestyle as significant risk factors in subgroups according to menstrual status change, may suggest vulnerable points in the transition. (Kim et al., 2016) Implications include the need for stronger emphasis on weight control before midlife and experiencing menopause, promoting exercise across the menopausal transition, and supportive policy measures for economically disadvantaged women.
Our findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviors and other risk factors of overweight Latina women may be improved through a promotora-led lifestyle behavior intervention. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307195/) Lifestyle modifications, including reducing core body temperature, regular exercise, weight management, smoking cessation, and avoidance of known triggers such as hot drinks and alcohol, may be recommended to reduce mild vasomotor symptoms. (https://sogc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/gui311CPG1505Erev.pdf) Lifestyle modifications are also essential in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.