how to face disaster

Disaster means a sudden
accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.
There are two ways of disaster they are DIS and ASTER. DIS mean destruction and
ASTER mean like star. There are some disaster you can see and some disaster you
cannot see. The disaster you can see is natural disaster and human made
disaster. There are some natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, and other
geologic processes. a flood can cause after a longer time heavy rained there
are many types of floods which flows under 3
main categories they are overflow, urbanization and accumulations  all these can cause flood. Flooding cause
damage to the environment, infrastructure, economy and property. An enexpected
movement of earth called earthquake when two parts of earth move suddenly in
relation to each other along a fault line due to tectonic forces and earthquake
occurs a tremendous amount of energy is released in the foam of tremors and
vibration such earthquakes are called tectonic earthquake the point of origin
of an earthquake is called the forcouse while the point directly about it on
the surface of the earth is called a epicenter owing to the stronger vibration
around the point of origin the degree of destruction is greater of the
epicenter the branch of knowledge that deals with the study of earthquake is
called seismology and the experts who study about the seismic waves are called seismologists
.in 479 BC,when the soldiers besieged the Greek city of portidaea,the tide retested
much farther than usual, leaving a convenient invention route us this wasn’t   a stroke of luck. Before they had closed halfway,
the water returned in waves higher than anyone had ever seen, drowning the
attackers. The postdates believed they had been saved by the wreath of
posidon.but really saved them was likely the same phomeonen that has destroyed countless
others: a TSUNAMI. Although tsunami is commonly known as tidal waves, they actually
unrelated to the tidal active caused by the gravitytational forces of the sun
and moon. In many ways, tsunamis are just larger version of regular waves. They
have crest, and a consist not of moving water, but the movement of energy
through water. The difference where this energy comes from. For normal ocean
waves it comes from wind.becouse this only affects the surface the wave are
limited in size and speed. but tsunamis are coursed by energy originating underwater,
from galvanic eruption , summery in land side or most commonly an earthquake on
the ocean floor coursed when the tectonic plates of the earth’s surface slip,
releasing a massive amount of energy into the water. This energy travels up to
the surface disliking water and raising it above the normal sea level but
gravity pulls it back down which makes the energy ripple outwards horizontally.
(The Earth is a terrestrial planet consisting of a crust, mantle, molten outer
core, and solid inner core. The Earth’s crust is rich in silicon, aluminum, and
other elements less massive than iron. Most of the Earth’s iron and heavier
elements are located in the mantle and core. The crust extends about 40 miles
below the continents but only 10 miles underneath the ocean basins. Strange as
it may seem, the crust comprises only 1% of our planet’s mass; the mantle and
core constitute the other 99%.

To put it in
perspective, if the Earth were the size of a peach, the crust would correspond
to the skin of the peach. The fruit and pit correspond to the mantle and core,
respectively. The mantle consists of semisolid igneous rock that gradually
becomes entirely liquid closer to the core. Small amounts of mantle are ejected
during volcanic eruptions, given that the roots of volcanoes often extend 100
miles or more below the Earth’s surface. The outer core is thought to be made
up of molten iron, nickel, and other metals. The inner core is an extremely
dense metallic ball. Even though the inner core is hotter than the outer core,
it remains solid due to its high density as well as the immense pressure
exerted on it by the surrounding mantle and outer core. All geological
processes that occur below the Earth’s surface are driven, directly or
indirectly, by heat released from the Earth’s core. According to geologists,
most of the intense heat in the Earth’s interior was produced by the accretion
of the planet over 4 billion years ago. The remainder is produced by the
continuous decay of radioactive elements. As with other bodies, the Earth’s
heat is dissipated by three mechanisms: radiation, conduction, and, most
importantly, convection. Briefly, radiation means the transmission of heat into
surrounding space. This is the way Earth receives solar energy. Conduction
means the transfer of heat from one object to another by direct contact. For
example, a metal spoon placed in a cup of hot coffee will gradually become
hot to the touch. Finally, convection refers to heat transfer by means of
directly moving hot matter to a cooler region, as with a convection
oven. The most well understood example of geologic convection is
volcanism, discussed next.  Volcanism: Hot Spots and Seduction Zones
Hot spot volcanoes result from the upwelling of magma plumes from the Earth’s
mantle, which penetrate through the crust and ultimately burst through the
surface to form a volcano. These hot spots are scattered across the continents
and ocean basins. They include Yellowstone National Park (located atop a
caldera volcano), the Galapagos, the Hawaiian Islands, and other volcanic peaks
in Africa, the Arabian peninsula, Indonesia, Siberia, Antarctica, and
elsewhere.Subduction zone volcanism occurs at regions where the ocean floor dives
underneath an adjacent area of thick continental crust. As the oceanic crust
melts into the underlying mantle, magma chambers are produced, resulting in
chains of volcanoes. Examples of seduction zone volcanism include the Aleutian
Islands off Alaska, Crater Lake, and Mt. St. Helens. Many volcanoes around the
Pacific Ocean, the so called Ring of Fire, were produced by seduction zone volcanism.
In addition to volcanism, convection in the Earth’s mantle is responsible
for earthquakes and tsunamis.EarthquakesThe Earth’s lithosphere (crust and
upper mantle) is fractured into 15 major tectonic plates, as shown on the
diagram. Heat circulating in the Earth’s mantle is believed to drive the
movement of tectonic plates. Although the plates are moving at approximately
one inch per year, this accounts for the rearrangement of Earth’s continents
over vast spans of geologic time. At their boundaries, tectonic plates collide,
spread apart, or move in parallel but opposite directions to each other. As a
result of these movements, most earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries.
Seismic activity is a continuous phenomenon. Earthquakes strong enough to be
felt, however, occur at intervals of months or years.TsunamisTsunamis are
caused by undersea earthquakes. When large areas of ocean floor are suddenly
sink or are thrust up by tectonic plate movements, the result is a massive
ripple effect below the ocean’s surface. In the open ocean, these waves may be
undetectable without special monitoring equipment. As these waves approach
islands and continental shelves, however, they gain amplitude quickly, with
crests approaching 50 feet. When these waves crash onshore, they can devastate
coastal regions, with death tolls in the hundreds of thousands, as happened in
the December 2004 Indonesian tsunami.)”This all proof by the scientific
research of actforlibraries”they mention this that all there are true. human
made disasters are Hazardous materials, Power
service disruption & blackout, Radiological emergencies, Chemical threat and biological weapons, Cyber attacks,Explosion,Civil unrest. there are some natural
disaster that humans cannot see like personal anguish like death of mother or
father ,loss of scholarship and rejection of jobs and etc. (Human-made disaster
is disaster resulting from man-made hazards as opposed to natural disasters
resulting from natural hazards. It means a disaster or emergency situation that
result in civilian population’s casualties, loss of property, loss of basic
services, and means of livelihood as a result of war or civil strife. The cause
of a human-made disaster can be either intentional or unintentional human
actions. Human-made disasters or emergencies can be fast or of slow attack.
Human-made disaster admits that all disasters are caused by humans. Human-made
disaster involves an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or
involving a failure of a man-made system. It is also called as man-made
disaster.)”ties is proofed by the USLEGA”.a natural
disaster can cause loss of life or property damage like loss of house, children
and jobs etc.disasters can omen anytimes, when disaster comes the comity of
news they will give us warning when they give us warnings then we should listen
to the news all the times amen to safe keep all your expensive things if u have
a upper flow if not give and keep
all the things who have a upper flow to safe and keep a first aid box with you.
In that time don’t go out or don’t send anyone out make sure all your things
are safe and off all the electricity current off and main power off .seal all
the Ares which the way water can come inside the house by putting some tapes
and seal with rubbers and clothes for safety of water. Every mint keeps contact
with all your family and nabours. BE SAFTY AS MUCH YOU CAN BE SAFE.

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