I. Background of the Subject
The Government Cloud (GovCloud) is a central to the object of setting up systems and services that would enable efficient operations. As governments streamline ICT resources to cut back on hardware and operations cost and improve overall operational efficiency, most have started to adopt virtualization and cloud technology solutions. In the Philippines, a world bank study on interoperability readiness and demand assessment of government agencies reveal that most agencies are good candidates for virtualization and cloud computing and should take advantage of ICT resource consolidation and cloud technology.
To maximize the available resources, the eGovFrame uses an open source software (OSS) development framework. The OSS facilitates the application development based on open standards, which require the publishing of source codes for public use and give the user the full rights to reproduce, distribute, and modify the software.
By this definition, the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) shall have the right to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone in public and for any purpose. The open standards will improve the quality of software, allow more efficient application development, promote reuse of software modules, and eliminate technical dependencies on the framework of providers.
Besides being government-specific, GovCloud is also offered as a branded product of several private cloud vendors such as Amazon AWS, providing similar solutions for government institutes.
The servers, storage devices, networking equipment, and software found in the cloud help improve government also saves money this way because services are shared by agencies; i.e., one agency can take advantage of the same resources needed by another agency. Costs are managed because hardware acquisition and maintenance are reduced. Cloud services can also be provisioned and reallocated on demand depending on the budget, resource requirements or time of the year.
The Government takes the lead in the adoption of the Cloud Computing model to meet rising public demands and community expectations on e-government services and reap the benefits of emerging technologies.
II. Statement of the Problem
The solutions which cloud computing can offer for e-government challenges includes scalability, cost saving, professional management of applications and resources, but the transition of e-government to cloud computing in the status quo and without organizational model can generate the following problems:
Studying the degree of need of cloud computing for e-government. What is the reality of e-government which leads to cloud computing to avoid the failure. Cloud computing should not be a luxury. It is necessary to know the status of e-government.
The environment of e-government applications should be suitable for cloud computing environment. E-government appeared before cloud computing. There are some legacy systems in e-government environment do not fit with the modern environment of cloud computing. It is necessary to make tuning of environment or appropriateness of the applications.
Local governments usually are similar in functional applications. The transition of e-government to cloud computing in presence that similar applications will make redundancy of services that generate additional cost in cloud computing. Reducing the redundancy of services is needed.
Security, privacy and trust are critical issues between e-government and cloud computing provider. Building strong Service Level Agreement SLA (legal contract), and determining security model to access the data in cloud computing are needed.
These problems that the research tries to get relatively satisfactory solutions by proposing new development model consists of five stages to solve the previous five problems.
The general objective of the govcloud is setting up a systems and services that would enable efficient operations.
Specifically, it aims to help the government to have a fastest and effective service for the citizens with the used of internet and the solution for the government challenges in terms of scalability, cost saving, security, timely and reliably.
IV. Areas Of Consideration
A. External Environment
Delivering services efficiently and achieving cost savings are the top two drivers of cloud adoption in government. Gartner foresees double-digit growth in government use of public cloud services, with spending forecast to grow on average 17.1% per year through 2021. Across all industries, companies spend an average of 20.4% of their IT budgets on cloud. Cloud use by government organizations varies depending on whether they operate at a national, state/province or local level. Local governments spend 20.6% of their IT budgets on cloud, and national governments spend 22%. Arguably, local governments are better positioned to benefit from increased spending on cloud as shrinking budgets, changing demographics and rising expectations for digital engagement place them at the apex of the need for transformation.
Government services will be more accessible to citizens, businesses, and other agencies as GovCloud accelerates the deployment of agencies’ services and data online, said Undersecretary Denis F. Villorente of the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT). Villorente emphasized the role of cloud computing in reducing costs and improving operational efficiency of agencies during the official launch of GovCloud on 28 March 2017 at Novotel Manila. Representatives from the Department of Information and Communications Technology, Advanced Science and Technology Institute of the Department of Science and Technology, and Vibal Group officially launch the GovCloud. GovCloud is a complete cloud solution that provides agencies the benefits of virtualization and cloud computing.
The cloud infrastructure allows sharing and integration of resources among agencies and serves as a centralized data repository. It offers flexible technical specifications depending on the requirements of each client. With the careful planning of GovCloud’s architecture, DICT further assured agencies of the security and reliability of the cloud infrastructure.
Department of Science and Technology (DOST) agencies, the Information and Communications Technology Office (DOST-ICTO) and the Advanced Science and Technology Institute (DOST-ASTI) is encouraging government institutions to adopt the use of cloud applications over traditional IT systems, as it unveiled a new online service called GovCloud or Government Cloud, which will enable government agencies to use secure online applications for their various computing requirements.
An example of “cloud” computing is that of Google, wherein users have files and applications on the web, doing away with local storage. All the users need to access their files and email on the web is a web browser. This kind of service is public cloud. The GovCloud is essentially a private cloud for the government and will be available for government agencies and their employees.
Cloud computing has brought about a significant change in the economics and sustainability of ICT. By sharing computing resources through a high speed network connection or the Internet, applications can be allocated resources when needed and as needed, thus, reducing hardware acquisition and maintenance costs, essentially creating an “economies of scale” for computing.
Downtime is perhaps the single greatest disadvantage of cloud computing. We’re not talking about server downtime, but your Internet access going down. As long as your Internet access is out, you can’t do anything with the cloud. Some mobile data plans can help to offset that problem temporarily. Cellular service often remains viable when internet access and even power goes out. Of course, data plans are capped and mobile devices have limited battery life. Then again, if the power is out, you’ve probably got bigger concerns than accessing your cloud services.
Security, at one level, is an advantage of cloud computing for the reasons discussed above. Security is also a disadvantage at a different level. The user is the weak link in almost all security systems. If you don’t use basic digital security methods, cloud computing is about as secure as leaving your laptop open at a coffee shop. Security is one area where determining cloud computing advantage and disadvantages depends on the angle from which you look at the issue.
Data leaking, there’s a possibility that a classified data leaks into unclassified information. As an example, a confidential information was accidentally shared into multiple people. It has nothing to do with it once an important data had disseminated.
• Inter-Agency Collaboration for Greater Efficiency and Better Citizen Online Services- Cloud computing enables more effective collaboration as agencies are able to easily share resources across institutions, allowing for greater efficiency, entrepreneurship and creativity in delivering public online services.
• Operational Continuity and Business Recovery- With centralized data storage, management and backups, data retrieval and business recovery during times of crisis (e.g. natural disasters or other disruptive events) become faster, easier and more cost effective.
• Greater Budget Control- A utility-based “pay for what you use” model means that government agencies can purchase as much or as little resources as they need it. Cloud scalability results in systems usage being dialed up or down throughout the year as it is required. Transparency of the utility-based pricing structure means that spending caps and alerts can be implemented to further assist in budget control.
B. Internal Environment.
To simplify processes and improve public service, the government has embarked on a mission to implement interoperability and rationalize data management through a common platform for the whole of government, the Department of Science and Technology announced today (Thursday, February 26). Louis Napoleon C. Casambre, DOST Undersecretary and Executive Director of the Information and Communications.
The current cloud infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) was set up in 2013, as part of the Integrated Government Philippines (iGovPhil) Program jointly implemented by the Department of Information and Communication Technology (DICT) and the Department of Science and Technology- Advanced Science and Technology Institute (DOST-ASTI). The setup was small-scale since it was developed initially to support iGovPhil-developed applications and other services including the Government Mail (GovMail). However, as more agencies came to know about GovCloud, the cloud IaaS was later offered to other government agencies in need of cloud computing.
The Integrated Government Philippines (iGovPhil) Program is one of the components of the eGovernment Master Plan (EGMP), the government’s blueprint for implementing the harmonization and integration of its information and communications technology (ICT) efforts.
To guarantee the reliability, effectiveness, and stability of the e-government initiatives defined by the EGMP, the iGovPhil Program will need to implement a strong security system that will secure the whole infrastructure. Because the iGovPhil Program to cater to the whole of government, establishing the Security Operations Center (SOC) is necessary to maintain the security of all agency applications and systems lodged in the iGovPhil Program’s infrastructure.
Today, cloud computing operations have become very popular and widely employed by many of the organizations just because it allows to perform all business operations over the Internet.
• Flexible- developer friendly
• Innovation Leader
• Large Google Network
• Space of differentiation
• Cost is all under their control
• Strong Software portfolio
• Easy to use platform
• Strong in both public ; private cloud
• Mainly Windows brand
• Not that much open source
• Long way to go to Enterprise
• Mainly end user type for
• Google data centers
• Specific hosted application