I would advise the young woman that it is recognized that the use of alcohol, especially in expansive amounts, harms the child while the fetus grows in the womb. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can have long-term medical problems and birth defects. When alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, the baby also drinks because it passes through the placenta due to it lipid solubility and a molecular weight between 60-0 and 1,000 which allows it pass freely (Porth and Grossman, 2014).. Due to the small size of the child, the degradation of alcohol, which is a teratogen (substance that causes damage to human development), ventilation is usually much slower than in an adult. The problem with drinking alcohol during pregnancy is that there is no amount that has been proven to be safe.
Study of the placenta has shown that there is reduction in the cell grown and therefore normal growth function is affected in women who drinks alcohol verses women who does not. The University of Manchester (2015), there is also a reduction in transporting of an important amino acid taurine, which come from the mother to her baby via the placenta. This amino acid is essential for brain and physiological development and reduced levels have been linked to poorer behavior and physical development (Health News, 2014). Alcohol or its metabolic breakdown products can also interfere with brain development by altering the production or function of natural regulatory substances that help promote the orderly growth and differentiation of neurons (Michaelis and Michael, 1994).
According to the Center for Disease Control (2016), more than 3 million American women between the ages of 15 and 44 are at risk of exposing their developing child to alcohol because they drink, have sex and do not use contraception to prevent pregnancy. However, because of this reasoning, approximately half of all pregnancies in the US are not planned and, even if they are planned, most women do not know they are pregnant until 4-6 weeks after pregnancy (CDC, 2016). This means that a woman could drink and expose her developing baby to alcohol without knowing it (CDC, 2016. It is recommended that pregnant or pregnant women do not drink anything because FASD does not occur if a developing child is not exposed to alcohol before birth (CDC, 2016). Drinking during pregnancy can also increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (Department of Women Health, n.d.). It is estimated that up to 1 in 20 children in the US can have FASD (CDC, 2016).
What types of abnormalities can be caused by alcohol, and how does genetics influence this?
Fetal spectrum disorder (FASD) is a group of conditions that can occur to a person whose mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy (Porth and Grossman, 2014). FASDs are completely preventable: if a woman do not drink alcohol during pregnancy, her child has no zero risk of FASD.
People with FASD may experience a combination of the following problems: physical problems such as low birth weight and growth, heart problems, kidneys and other organs damage the brain pieces Which leads to behavioral disabilities and intellectual disabilities and low IQ and hyperactivity. This can lead to lifelong school problems and social skills, to living independently, to mental health and to substance use. FASDs are completely preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy, her child has zero risk of an FASD.
In spite of the fact that advances has been made as of late in the field of quality recognizable proof, the hereditary determinants of liquor addiction have not yet been found. Genetic factors account for more than 50% of the variance in alcoholism liability. Susceptibility loci for alcoholism include both alcohol?specific genes acting either at the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic levels, as well as loci moderating neuronal pathways such as reward, behavioral control and stress resiliency, that are involved in several psychiatric diseases. In recent years, major progress in gene identification has occurred using intermediate phenotypes such as task?related brain activation that confer the advantage of increased power and the opportunity of exploring the neuronal mechanisms through which genetic variation is translated into behavior. Fundamental to the detection of gene effects is also the understanding of the interplay between genes as well as genes/environment interactions. Whole Genome Association studies represent a unique opportunity to identify alcohol?related loci in hypothesis?free fashion. Finally, genome?wide analyses of transcripts and chromatin remodeling promise an increase in our understanding of the genome function and of the mechanisms through which gene and environment cause diseases.