The United States, legitimately United States of America, abbreviated U.S. or U.S.A., byname America, country in North America, an administration republic of 50 states. Other than the 48 comparable states that have the middle extents of the landmass, the United States claims the region of Gold country, at the northwestern extraordinary of North America, and the island region of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Sea. The united states are border on the north by Canada, on the east by the Atlantic Sea, on the south by the Inlet of Mexico , and on the west by the Pacific Sea. The United States is the fourth greatest country on the planet in locale (after Russia, Canada, and China). The national capital is Washington, which is coextensive with the Region of Columbia, the administration capital area made in 1790.
The United States is moderately youthful by world norms, being under 250 years of age; it accomplished its present size just in the mid-twentieth century. America was the first of the European settlements to isolate effectively from its homeland, and it was the principal country to be set up on the commence that sway rests with its natives and not with the legislature. In its first century and an a large portion of, the nation was basically distracted with its own particular regional development and monetary development and with social verbal confrontations that at last prompted common war and a recuperating period that is as yet not finish. In the twentieth century the United States developed as a politically influential nation, and since World War II it has been one of the superior forces. It has not acknowledged this mantle effortlessly nor dependably conveyed it energetically; the standards and beliefs of its organizers have been tried by the weights and exigencies of its predominant status. The United States still offers its inhabitants open doors for unparalleled individual headway and riches. Nonetheless, the exhaustion of its assets, the defilement of its condition, and the proceeding with social and monetary imbalance that sustains zones of neediness and scourge all undermine the texture of the nation.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions.
The two most traumatic experiences in the nation’s history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world’s most powerful nation state.
To understand any country’s political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental necessity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. CITATION ROG08 l 1036 (DARLINGTON)
I.1. Background of the American history
Back in the year 1776, Britain’s American colonies broke with the mother country (UK) and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
At that time there were four main factors in the minds of the ‘founding fathers’ who drafted the US Constitution:
The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government – executive, legislature and judiciary – and ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of power by the other arms.
The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths.
The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations. Arguably the later Civil War was about states’ rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government.
The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on a ‘Great Compromise’ between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of population. This is why today six states have only one member in the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate.
From the production of the Republic in 1776, there has been a feeling that the United States has been excellent in its sense of duty regarding flexibility as communicated in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Despite the fact that today there are numerous difficulties to freedom in the USA, numerous Americans still feel that their connection to freedom is a recognizing highlight of their country compared with others.
1. Background of the study Political studies “Science”
It is difficult to give an exact definition to the term political sciences in light of the fact that numerous researchers characterized it in an unexpected way. In any case, notwithstanding the distinction they all had “State” said in every one of their definitions. From this premise we can characterize political investigations as a piece of social examinations which treats the establishments of the state and standards of government.
The term ‘Political Science’ comprises of two words, political and science. The word ‘governmental issues’ is gotten from the Greek word ‘Polis’ which implies the city-state. In antiquated Greece, the essential unit of political association was the city-state. It was the Greeks who initially set out upon the investigation of state as particular from the congregation. The establishments of political reasoning were laid by the immense Greek rationalists, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Plato was the writer of the book “The Republic”. Aristotle the father of political science initially utilized the term ‘legislative issues’ and changed over the subject into a scholarly train. He distributed his book ‘Governmental issues’ as a first precise investigation of legislative issues.
Science: is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation, evidence and experiment. So political science is the branch of knowledge that deals with systematic study of the structure and behavior of the state and political institutions through scientific analysis. Politics refers to the subject matter of our study; science denotes the methodology or the way of studying the process of politics. The first term seeks to answer the question “what is studied” and the second term refers to “how is it studied”. Therefore, the political phenomenon which should be studied in accordance with a definite plan or system is called political science. CITATION Int l 1036 (Introduction to political science)
In endeavor to depict and clarify the task of a political framework, it is
important to mastermind an immense measure of point by point data into an unmistakable
design that will give importance and shape to the exercises of the individuals who
live in it and influence it to work. On account of the United States, the issue of
distinguishing the significant determinants of political conduct is confused by
the colossal assorted variety of American life, and by the manner by which sacred
structures and the examples of political activity are persistently acting
what’s more, responding upon each other. Before we dive into the detail of American
governmental issues, in this manner, it is important to consider for a minute the speculations
that have been proposed to clarify the thought process powers behind political
frameworks, and the ramifications of these contrasting clarifications for our comprehension of the American framework.
This study is going to include extensive research into the main factors and reasons that shaped the American politics and minds and made of the United States of America a world leading power in all different domains.
Review of literature
Politics are the basis for the construction of any country, for on one hand no politics means no country and no source of wisdom and power. While on the other hand politics if found means power and legacy for the nation.
Politics as any other thing can be affected by multiple factors. Mainly people, ideas, and media are what affected the US politics and made of it an ultimate power.
In this sense, multiple works were done by the major American and non-American politics specialists in order for them to investigate and get to know what the American politics are about. In his book “American politics, then and now “(2010) James Q. Wilson made a research about the difference in politics then and now and focused mainly on the policy intelligence and the public policy of the United States of America. He discussed also the relation between politics and religion and went more to investigate how politics changed American minds and shaped their thinking.
Another similar work was done by Ken Kollman entitled “The American political system” (2014), focused on exploring the American political system and analyzing the politics, the government and the origins of the American political system. The same author didn’t stop on only exploring and explaining but he moved to comparing and criticizing the American political system and gave multiple reasons to show that American political system is not the strongest in the world and that it is going to fall down.
I. American political system
I.1. Definition of politics
The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.Or furthermore it is all the activities or affairs engaged in, by a government, politician, or political party in order to control the nation to what is best.
I.2. The operational function of the American political system
The American political system is a Federal system. Which in other words means that power is divided between a national government (Federal Government) and the States.There are 50 States. Each State has an elected Governor and a legislature consisting of a State House and a State Senate.
The election of the President and the Vice President of the United States is an indirect vote in which citizens cast ballots for a slate of their member from the U.S. Electoral College; these voters thus specifically choose the President and VP.
The US Government is divided into three branches – the president and his bureau (the executive), the US Congress (the legislature) and the courts (the judiciary).
The partition of forces in the American governmental issues were intended to give an arrangement of balanced governance which keep any individual or gathering from picking up excessively control.
The US political-sphere is dominated by two primary parties, the Democratic and Republican parties regardless of the presence of minor parties, like the Libertarian and Green gatherings, however their impact in the public eye is of no power contrasted with the dominating parties impact.
I.3. The major determinant of the US political behavior
The United States of America is a republic nation in which the citizens are the ruler of the country, where they can make new laws or change existing once or dismiss a law. They choose their president to represent them and defend their rights and work for the good of the nation relying on their own political notions.
As the main ruler of the United States of America, people are affected and shaped in a way that allows them think clearly and critically when it comes to a country decision.
There are three principle wellsprings of impact that shape political behavior of the US which makes long haul impacts. For the most part, the essential impact begins from family. As expressed beforehand, kids will regularly receive their parents and folks ideological qualities. A few scholars have contended that family has a tendency to be the most grounded, most compelling power; one study credited the US political behavior of the 1930s to the impact of parents.
Besides, instructors and other instructive expert figures significantly affect political behavior. From as right on time as age 4 up until 18, kids invest around 25% of their energy engaged with instructive procedures. Post-auxiliary training essentially raises the effect of political mindfulness and behavior; an October 2004 investigation of 1,202 school students over the United States demonstrated that 87% of undergrads were enrolled to vote, contrasted with a national normal of 64% of American adults learning at Santa Clara University additionally demonstrated that 84% of understudies there were enlisted to vote. Likewise consider that youth and juvenile phases of self-awareness have the most abnormal amount of receptiveness.
Thirdly, upper class additionally influence political behavior. Companions frequently, yet not really, have the benefit of being a piece of a similar age, which on the whole builds up an exceptional arrangement of societal issues; Eric L. Dey has contended that “socialization is the procedure through which people procure learning, propensities, and esteem introductions that will be helpful later on.” The capacity to relate on this basic level is the thing that fills and empowers future ideological development.
Sociologists and political researchers face off regarding the connection amongst age and the development of political mentalities. The naive years theory hypothesizes that political behavior is cynical amongst early adulthood. The “expanding determination theory” says that the states of mind turn out to be more averse to change as people grow up, while the ” life-long openness theory” suggests that the natures and characters of people stay the regardless of the age.
I.3 The theories and motives behind the US politics
Due to its new creation, the United States of America had to rely on multiple theories to create a political system for itself. Depending primarily on the way the United Kingdom politics are made the United States of America started building a political system that serves the needs and work for the development of their country, and as a result to this copying and adoption of ideas was then forced to copy and adopt the political theories of John Stuart Mill who’s theories are all applied in the United Kingdom’s politics.
John Stuart Mill, an English Philosopher and a Political Economist, is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of liberalism which later became classical liberalism. In his liberal philosophies John Stuart Mill gave value to: women’s rights, equal rights for all races, democracy and freedom of speech.
John Stuart Mill believed also that the individual is independent and the government has no right to exercise power over him unless it is for the sake of preventing him from harm, in this context he wrote: “…the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in the interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because in the opinion of others, to do so would be wise, or even right. These are good reasons for remonstrating with him, but not for compelling him, or visiting him with any evil in case he do otherwise.” CITATION Joh59 l 1036 (Mill)
Being a new country torn by the continuous wars, the United States of America wanted to empower its government and at the same time make most of the world suffer of the same things it suffered as a growing country, so it started targeting growing countries and implant its roots and absorbing all their powers and step by step, making disappear that country.
Motivated also by the richness of numerous nations, the United States of America put between her eyes a hegemonic goal which is to take over all those fortunes, some of the treasures which motivated the united states to invade were oil, others were gold and diamonds and the very others were to cultures and civilizations.
Many historians consider the United States of America an uncivilized country, not in the means of development, but in the means of civilization itself as a norm. This state were a one bad motive that made America search for civilizations to corrupt and seize.
I.4 The implication of the theories on the US political system
The United States of America adopted the philosophical ideas of John Stuart Mill and made of itself one of the few countries to call out for freedom of speech, equality between men and women and equality of rights. By adopting these ideas the United States of America had the best cover for any of its plans. For that it may for others seem like it is trying to liberate while it is in fact invading and taking over that place.
This happened back in 2003 when the United States of America started showing Iraq as an oppressed country and showed its people as weak, under-dictatorship who is in need of the American interference to help them out. America covered its real plan which was to take control over Iraq and its nuclear weapons and its fortune by fake liberal reasons as if it was to liberate and give freedom.
On a large scale Mill affected mainly the English speaking world and set them to think almost the same. His ideas encouraged the innovation and flourishment of new hegemonic ideas where the United Kingdom invaded Egypt and many other African nations while the United States of America invaded Iraq and many of other Arab nations.
Another good example for the implication of the US hegemonic political system is Afghanistan.
Since its existence Afghanistan suffered from terrorism and was a fortress for the most wanted terrorists of all times. This fact gave the United States of America the opportunity to apply its politics where it called at first to the need of freeing the world from the lesion of Terrorism and later called for the need of liberating the Afghans from their agony and grief.
Started by sending troops to Afghanistan to sending more air forces to establish a colony then more colonies then to take over half of the country!!
Lebanon, Soudan, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Somalia, were not the only places affected by the virus of the American politics, but more places were demolished and destroyed and controlled by the United States.
I.5 The main factors shaping the American politics and mind
As discussed before, they US political system was a nascent of several effects and factors, from philosophical effects and economic effects and wars effects.
Money was a major key that helped the United States of America to gain a super political power, alongside with other factors and reasons such as the nature of American people, the mass media control, and the region of the US itself.
I.5.1 The money factor
The marriage of money with politics in the U.S. traces back to the colonial days. In 1759, George Washington employed rum punch, money and a fiddler to bolster his election. There was an understanding, in those days, that men of means and education assumed leadership positions in the government. Over time, however, the political process changed and politics became big business.Money and its potentially corrupting influence is at the very heart of complaints about politics in the United States, and every two years, many candidates promise voters that they’ll try to reform a system that they say has been broken by congressional inaction and the Supreme Court.
Over the last recent year, Bernie Sanders has constructed his presidential campaign around the charge that the impact of affluent people and partnerships in races has prompted the section of laws that have enlarged the gorge between the rich and poor people. Hillary Clinton has likewise called for noteworthy campaign-back change, and even Donald Trump has participate, getting out his Republican opponents for being indebted to their real givers. Most different Republicans have rejected calls for change on the rule that political discourse ought not to be limited.
The issue of cash in legislative issues is so all around perceived that even Donald Trump, a definitive industrialist, and Bernie Sanders, a self-portrayed Law based communist, concede to it. Sanders has spent his vocation railing against the debasing impact of rich and corporate benefactors, while Trump has unmasked the amusement by conceding that he offered cash to legislators to curry support with them. The accomplishment of both of these government officials proposes how much Americans are tired of the impact of cash on legislative issues.If the US government don’t reduce that influence, the whole political system risks losing its legitimacy. “the future we want … will only happen if we fix our politics.” Among other things, we “have to reduce the influence of money in our politics” that allows “hidden interests to bankroll our elections. … If our existing approach to campaign finance can’t pass muster in the courts, we need to work together to find a real solution.”
Being the wealthiest country in the world with a total wealth of $64,584 billion (2017), the United States of America is for certain to have the most powerful politics. Generally speaking, logically the politics are dominated by the wealthiest and the most powerful. Exceptionally at the nation scale, the political parties to win the election are always the wealthiest in terms of campaign contributions and government/private funding for parties “only the rich can afford to run and only parties supported by the wealthy will gain enough funds and favorable press coverage to have a chance”.
I.5.2 The Media factor
People find out about politics primarily from TV, newspapers and even internet; these media outlets can impact voters not just through the feeling of a specific report, but also by picking which stories to cover and changing voters’ minds to what party to follow and which candidate to vote for. Media played a large role in shaping the American politics and spreading it to the globe.
– Unity for the best of the nation: media devices have enabled Americans to effectively combine to research the most up to date of political thoughts and speculations meanwhile and to search up for answers for every single political issue they are having, media permits similarly invested residents and political authorities to consolidate in ways that will be similarly as intense and for the advantage of the country and for the advancement of the governmental issues.
– Advertising: It has turned out to be genuinely normal for political campaigns to deliver plugs and distribute them on TV or the radio. In many cases, columnists covering campaigns will expound on those political notices, basically communicating their message to a more extensive group of onlookers at no cost to the legislators. Media permitted the Assembled Conditions of America flaunt its political powers and pick up a decent notoriety.
– Feedback: Requesting criticism from open or constituents can be something to be thankful for. Numerous campaigns enlist staff members to screen their media channels or their fundamental channels they distribute news on with the end goal for them to comprehend what open have of feelings on them and endeavor to settle whatever idea to not be right.
The other face of media was to convey news and show them for the entire world and shed light on overall political issues and moving general society to respond and roll out the improvement. The media did not simply has an impact in American political issues, yet in all-inclusive political issues also. Once in a while media scope in worldwide political undertakings can be to improve things or for terrible. amid the Vietnam war, people were for it at the lead position, however when correspondents and Television slots started demonstrating what was truly happening, general society betrayed the war and against president Johnson at the time.
At the point when the president of the Philippines, Marcos, was having his kin killed, the media meddled in and helped, As a result of the expansive news scope 500,000 Filipinos living in Southern California were offered relief and did not have to return to their nation to secure their families. The media moreover secured the United States’ war with Iraq. Numerous individuals can’t help contradicting Hedge’s decision to report war on Iraq; most are calling it a war for oil. Columnists at that point went to Iraq film and do interviews with warriors and people who live in Iraq. The media scope has in every way that really matters left the United States of America separated on the issue since they withhold a segment of the information from the American open. The media in like manner canvassed non-American association in various countries that allowed to see what is going on. The media has a colossal impact in American and overall political issues.
I.2. The main factors that made USA a world leading-power
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the US turned into the sole superpower in the world, and could exploit the huge worldwide impact it had accumulated since the late nineteenth century.
The term ‘superpower’ is used for a country that wields supremacy to convince nations in all parts of the world to do things they wouldn’t do normally. The U.S. will remain dominant for the foreseeable future. The facts have shown why America is still the world’s only leading power, and this won’t change anytime soon.
Many factors contributed to make the United States a super “controlling” power and gave it such influence over the whole world. The political influence, technology and innovation and the military power along with other factors are what made the United States of America a world leading power.
I.2.1. The political influence of the United States of America
Political power comes in many dimensions. For the U.S., foreign aid is an effective way to concrete its political influence globally. In 2013, the U.S. issued out $32.7 billion in financial assistance for politics; “money buys strong political cooperation from countries in need”.
But in order to have political power abroad, it is a must to first have stability at home. The U.S. has the oldest working national constitution in the world, as well as strong institutions and rule of law to accompany it. While far from perfect, the governing document created by America’s founding fathers has evolved along with its people. The numbers show the enduring attraction of this system: 45 million people living in the U.S. today were born in a foreign country. That is more than four times higher than the next highest country. For many people around the world, America remains the ideal place to start a new life.
The United States of America affected politically an uncountable number of countries, we mention:
The Arab Middle East : In 2009, Obama made a sweeping speech in Cairo that promised a new future for the Middle East, and especially for the Arab nations that make up its core. At the height of the Arab Spring two years later, it seemed like the US had committed itself to use its power in the region to advance Arab democratic interests.
Yet in 2017, from Iraq in the east to Lebanon and Jordan in the west, it is no secret that US influence in the Arab Middle East is at historic lows. Iranian regional dominance in the Fertile Crescent and Yemen, instability in Saudi Arabia, and the continuing appeal of Islamism over Western liberalism all mean that America’s ability to direct politics in the region has become seriously undermined.
Turkey: Along with Israel, Turkey has been considered the most reliable US ally in the Middle East for decades, and has been a crucial member of the NATO alliance since 1952.
Yet few of America’s ally relationships have become as strained as the one with Turkey in recent years. Peeved by America’s escalating diplomatic chastisement of its authoritarian President Recep Tayyip Erdo?an and the US’s continued support for Kurds in Syria, Turkey has diverged from the US on numerous regional issues.
On natural gas imports, the war in Syria, and Kurdish independence, Turkey has turned to Russia and Iran for support as a direct result of friction with the US.
Philippines: America’s deep historical ties to the Philippines stretch back to the 1898 Spanish-American War, when the US acquired the islands from Spain. Since then, the US has maintained bases in the Philippines, and has enjoyed immense cultural and political influence on the islands.
Pakistan: The US and Pakistan have been ardent allies throughout the Cold War and into the War on Terror, but recent political differences and the growing influence of China in the country have strained American power in the south Asian country.
Already under pressure from the US for its ties to the Taliban, the Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence’s corruption and potential connections to terrorist groups, and Pakistan’s alleged dishonesty on late Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden’s whereabouts, the relationship has been damaged further by the US cozying up to India, which has accelerated in recent months.
Pakistan, which has been India’s arch-rival since 1947, has instead turned to China, just like so many other tepid US allies around the world. CITATION htt1 l 1036 (http://time.com/3899972/us-superpower-status-military/)I.2.2. The economic influence of the United States of America
The American economy remains the bedrock of the worldwide money related framework. More than 80% of every single money related exchange worldwide are led in dollars, as are 87% of outside cash advertise exchanges. For whatever length of time that the world keeps on putting such confidence in America’s cash and general monetary dependability, the U.S. economy remains the one to beat.
I.2.3. The technology influence of the United States of America
Among the nine largest technology industries in the world, eight are based in the United States of America (Apple, Google, Amazon, Coca-Cola, Facebook, IBM, Microsoft, Intel) This number and these companies put America in the top of the innovative countries. By owning the biggest technologies and the newest inventions in all majors, the United States of America became a destination for all reasons. From Europe, Africa or even Asia people travel all the way to undergo surgeries that are in no other place in the world but in the USA.
Innovations and Technologies of the United States of America can save the world and make it a better place, better the education, the medicine, and also make better the incomes of the US.
I.2.4. The military power influence of the United States of America
Topping the list of the most powerful military forces in the world, United States of America spends more than a 597 billion dollar of budget in its military forces! This number scares many countries and had them kneeling before the United States of America.
The US owns the best air forces in the world with more than 3000 aircrafts, the best marine forces with more than 50 of the biggest watercrafts. With more than “7000” nuclear heads.
These powers got the United States of America to intervene in more than 100 countries.
United States’ military forces gained her a super power and a good reputation and made its opponents fear its anger and just be submissive to all it says.