Jean-Jacques Rousseau 

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born June 28, 1712 in Geneva and died July
2, 1778 in Ermenonville, France. He was a well-known philosopher of the French
enlightenment. He lived with his family in a poor house and received informal
education at his own his, by his father. He was trained to become an engraver at
around the age of 13. At about 16 years of age, Rousseau left his hometown and
moved to Paris in 1742. While
living there, he had to earn his living by working as everything from footman
to assistant to an ambassador.   

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau is considered one of the
key enlightenment philosophers. The foundation to philosophy that was
unconventional of any type of tradition, culture or religion was given by
Enlightenment thinkers. In the domain of science, this task has its underlying
foundations in the introduction of present day rationality, in vast part with
the seventeenth century philosopher, René Descartes.

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As Abernethy said, “During the
Enlightenment, there was more emphasis on scientific methods, secularization of
learning, religious tolerance, universal education, individual liberty, reason,
progress and the separation of church and state.” Some key Enlightenment
concepts are; Reason, scepticism, religious tolerance, liberty, progress and
empiricism versus rationalism.

 

In
the pre-edification stage, the cutting-edge middle-class society produced a
multiplication of moralities that made a divided and untidy society and this
clarifies why Rousseau upheld an arrival to the ethically requested
pre-Enlightenment world.

 

In
the pre-Enlightenment world, similarly as the characteristic world
confirmations a specific request and progression to it, so too the ethical,
social and political universes all show a request to them. For Rousseau, there
is a continuum between the regular, social, moral and political universes with
God as the maker of the common world, the pater familias as the figure who
screens and controls the family and the lawmaker as the figure who makes the
laws of the state. 

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