literature review

In 1997, (J. Brisswalter, R. Arcelin, M. Audiffren, D.
Delignieres, 1997)had
worked on similar studies. They studied the Influence Of Physical Exercise On
Simple Reaction Time: Effect of Physical Fitness. In their study, two groups of
subjects were used, one was composed of trained middle-distance runners and the
other groups of students had no regular physical training. After that, the
subjects performed a simple reaction time task while pedalling on a
cycloergometer at different relative power output corresponding to 20, 40, 60
and 80% of their own aerobic power and immediately after exercise. The results
showed a decreased in cognitive performance for both groups whereas no
significant effect was found after exercise. A significant effect of physical
fitness on simple reaction time was noted during exercise. The data are
interpreted in terms of optimization of performance focusing particularly on
relations between energy cost of the physical task and attentional demand. The
results showed a significant main effect for physical fitness and an
interaction of physical fitness and work load on energy cost of cycling,
lactate concentration, and mean reaction times, whereas no effects were found
for variation of pedal rate and reaction time errors or mean reaction times
recorded after exercise. The conclusion that had been made in this study was the
authors concluded that there is a relation exists between energetic constraints
and attentional demand. They also mentioned that further studies is necessary
to validate the hypothesis that they listed.

In 2005, (Karen Davranche, Boris Burle, Micheal Audiffren,
Thierry Hasbroucq, 2005)had also worked on similar studies. They
studies how physical exercise facilitates motor and processes in simple
reaction time performance using electromyographic analysis. The aim of this
study that they had worked on was to assess the effects of physical exercise on
simple reaction time performance. Twelve
experienced players in decision-making sports (five females and seven males,
aged 22–50) were tested. Participants performed a simple reaction time task
twice, one time during physical exercise and another time without exercise.
Electromyographic signals were recorded from the thumb of the responding hand
to fraction raction time in pre-motor and motor time. The results showed that
exercise shortened motor time but failed to affect pre-motor time. The present
study clearly indicates that exercise improves simple reaction time
performance. Reaction time fractioning reveals that physical exercise improves
late motor processes. The analysis of the electromyographic burst suggests that
the motor unit discharge is better synchronized during exercise. This pattern
of findings is consistent with previous studies examining the effects of
physical exercise on choice reaction time. In addition, there were also
external reason that may affect the results obtained from this study, therefore
the researcher of this study suggest that a more accurate and detail
conclusions should await further studies to me work in the future.

In 1996 (S.W. Moore,
J. Beamer, K. Whalen, R.C. Hamdy, 1996) had also worked on
similar research. Their research title was “The effects of Physical Exercise on
Balance Control, Sway and Postural Reflexes. They examined the effects of
physical exercise on balance control, sway and postural reflexes in healthy
people, aged 55 years or more and enrolled in a physical exercise program. They
had recruited 94 volunteers. They were asked to exercise 30 minutes, three
times a week, and increasing their heart from 65% to 85% according to their
age. NeuroCom Balance Master International was used. The best of the following
two consecutive assessments was recorded. The results showed that regular
exercise improved balance control and postural reflexes and reduces sway.
Individual differences between different exercises also be presented. They also
concluded that the aging process in associated with a deterioration of balance
control and postural reflexes and an increased sway, even in healthy,
physically active subjects.

research paper with the aim of investigating the effects of exercise on
physical reflexes was based on the three research paper by (Karen Davranche, Boris
Burle, Micheal Audiffren, Thierry Hasbroucq, 2005), (J. Brisswalter, R. Arcelin,
M. Audiffren, D. Delignieres, 1997) and (S.W. Moore, J. Beamer, K. Whalen, R.C. Hamdy, 1996). The idea of the
current research paper was also originated by this two research paper. It is
true that many researchers had done many researches related to exercise and
physical reflexes. But almost none of them research about the effect of
exercise to the physical reflexes of mankind. This is how the idea this
research paper came from. Another reason of this research paper was done is to
make the society aware of the importance of exercise. As the world in involving
in a very fast speed, many people only think of how to earn more money in order
to keep up with the evolution of the world. They forget that the most valuable
treasure is human owns’ health, as health cannot be buy by money or jewellery.


From the
data view, it can be concluded that the three research paper above had a
complete and detailed data with further explanation. From the language view, simple
English would be the best. If the researchers use scientific language in the
paper, some readers which have no science education background would have a
hard time reading the paper. From technical view, the paper should be divided
into parts by parts. This would help the readers when reading the paper and at
the same time, the readers would know which part of the paper they are reading.
Besides that, a research paper should not include personal pronoun in it. A
research paper also should not include short form of the word. Every part of
the paper were listed clearly and with detailed information. The flow of the
papers seem smooth and it is easy to read. A simple and smooth flow of research
paper would help readers to read the paper without any difficulties.

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