INTRODUCTIONThe question that I asked to begin my experiment was; “What is the effect of different musical genres on the heart rate of people aged 13-15? Which musical genres will make your heart rate increase the most and which genre will make your heart rate decrease the most?” I chose this specific topic because music has always been an interest of mine, and I would like to know which genre of music is best to listen to in different scenarios. For example, what music would I listen to to feel happy, sad, relaxed, or when I need to slow my heart rate down and speed it up.ABSTRACTA series of tests were conducted on a group of a small range of 6 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 (2 for each age.) The subjects listened to various genres and paces of music and had their heart rate taken 3 times during each song. This was all to answer the question: What are the effects of music on the heart rate of people aged 13-15? While doing this study, many things were learned about the factors and variables which affect the heart rate of any given person, as well as things that only affect some individuals. It was learned that people’s outlook on the song, their prior awareness of the song, and their musical preferences can change what occurs to their heart while appending songs to the environment. The test were very challenging to draw conclusions on.HYPOTHESISI believe based on personal experience and observations that more upbeat, fast and lively music will excite the person who is listening, and cause their heart rate and blood pressure to increase. This is because you are more focused on the beat and rhythm of the music and the lyrics don’t make you relax, your body is just moving to the music and making you feel like you want to get up and dance. I can say the exact opposite for more sad and calming music. This type of music will either make your heart rate stay the same or cause it to decrease, because as you listen to the lyrics and the beat you become more relaxed and your mind is cleared, your body is more neutral and you feel more calm and less anxious to move. I also believe this because after further research, I found a few articles on the science behind music effects on one’s brain, state of mind, and therefore the effect on the heart rate. When listening to music, it absorbs our attention. It may act as a distraction when you are feeling stressed, or it may put you in a better or worse mood. I also recognize the fact that music preference may play a role in how this affects your heart states. To remove partial bias, I chose genres of music that all my test subjects like, and also tried to chose songs that are catchy and have good rhythm. (I do realize that everyone has a different perception to music that may differ from my own, and that is one of the reasons why I am interested in testing this subject. I tried to remove potential bias, but I do recognize the fact that people’s music taste still may apply. I will address this fact while analyzing my data and draw conclusions from there.)BACKGROUND RESEARCH (Citations on reference page)Inspiration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=167&v=A7J-XJjrL9wQuote from website #1: “The soothing power of music is well-established. It has a unique link to our emotions, so can be an extremely effective stress management tool. Listening to music can have a tremendously relaxing effect on our minds and bodies, especially slow, quiet classical music. This type of music can have a beneficial effect on our physiological functions, slowing the pulse and heart rate, lowering blood pressure, and decreasing the levels of stress hormones. As music can absorb our attention, it acts as a distraction at the same time it helps to explore emotions. This means it can be a great aid to meditation, helping to prevent the mind wandering.”Quote from website #2: “Loud music made hearts beat faster and blood pressure go up, while softer passages lowered both heart rates and blood pressure, a new study shows.”MATERIALSA listening device (laptop)Earbuds or headphonesA method for measuring heartbeats (taking pulse or heart rate monitor)documents (charts)Two 13 year old subjects (one male and one female)Two 14 year old subjects (one male and one female)Two 15 year old subjects (one male and one female)3 songs of contrasting genres, about 3-4 minutes eachSong chosen: Believer-Imagine Dragons (Upbeat/Happy) Sad Song-We The Kings (Sad) Everdream-Epic Soul Factory (Neutral and Relaxing)PROCEDURECollect 6 test subjects. Choose three song in three different genres. Have a question sheet for how the felt after the song. Use a chart to document their heart rates after each test. The controlled variables were the number of subjects, number of female to male ratio, songs, length, how long I tested them, and the procedure was the same for every test.The subject was brought into the room and asked them to take a seat. Then gave a brief explanation in what will happen during the tests.Their pulse was measured and recorded The first song was started¼ way through the song, their pulse was taken for 15 seconds and recorded½ way through the song, their pulse was taken for 15 seconds and recorded¾ way through the song, their pulse was taken for 15 seconds and recordedOnce the song had nearly been finished, their pulse was taken for 15 seconds and recordedTheir average BPM was calculated and recordThe subjects were asked to write on a piece of paper, how they felt as they had listened to the songOnce they had a few minutes to neutralize, the next song was startedSteps 4-10 were repeated for each song(I would like to acknowledge that these tests were only conducted on a small group of test subjects, and I understand that this may be too small of a range. See ‘Next time’ for more.)DATA SUBJECT #1, MALE 13 (Peter M)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 1:20H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER59 BPM63 BPM70 BPM66 BPM66.3 BPSSAD SONG“57 BPM59 BPM60 BPM58.6 BPSEVERDREAM“59 BPM59 BPM60 BPM59.3 BPSSUBJECT #2, FEMALE 13 (Ameerah H)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 2:00H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER63 BPM68 BPM71 BPM65 BPM68 BPSSAD SONG“58 BPM60 BPM60 BPM59.3 BPSEVERDREAM“59 BPM61 BPM63 PM61 BPSSUBJECT #3, MALE 14 (Nathan C)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 2:00H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER60 BPM64 BPM65 BPM63 BPM63 BPSSAD SONG“59 BPM62 BPM60 BPM60.25 BPSEVERDREAM“58 BPM58 BPM59 PM58.75 BPSSUBJECT #4, MALE 14 (Elisha T)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 2:00H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER60 BPM68 BPM66 BPM64 BPM64.5 BPMSAD SONG“63 BPM63 BPM64 BPM62.5 BPMEVERDREAM“58 BPM59 BPM58 BPM58.75 BPMSUBJECT #5, FEMALE 15 (Lorryn F)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 2:00H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER62 BPM66 BPM66 BPM64 BPM64.5 BPMSAD SONG“62 BPM63 BPM63 BPM62.5 BPMEVERDREAM“63 BPM60 BPM60 BPM61.25 BPMSUBJECT #6, MALE 15 (Lucas A)SONGH.R BEFOREH.R 0:40H.R 2:00H.R 2:00AVERAGE H.RBELIEVER63 BPM70 BPM69 BPM68 BPM67.5 BPMSAD SONG“57 BPM58 BPM58 BPM59 BPMEVERDREAM“62 BPM60 BPM60 BPM61.25 BPMDATA ANALYSISGraph Created Using CreatAGraph.ComAfter analyzing the data in the charts above, these were the observations that made: The music genre that made the heart rates increase the most and had the highest heart rate average was the upbeat song ‘Believer’. The music genre that made the heart rates increase the most and had the lowest heart rate average was the relaxing song ‘Everdream’. Right in between those two and close to the total of Everdream, the music genre that was right in the middle for the averages, was the sad song ‘Sad Song’.DISCUSSIONThe trends in the graph above and the observation charts show that each song had a different heart rate total. Each song had an effect on the heart rates in a different way. For the upbeat song, the heart rates would go up. For the sad song, the heart rates went down not by much and were very consistent, this was also about the same for the relaxing song.In the end, the hypothesis was proven correct. My results were that the upbeat song sped up heart rates the most and that is what had predicted prior to conducting this experiment. Another prediction that was made before and proven correct was that the relaxing song would decrease the heart rate the most, and in the end that was what happened. Next Steps and error analysis:There are many things that could have been done to further this experiment and potentially change the results. To start, next time this experiment is conducted there can be a broader range of ages and how many people are tested. Throughout the experiment and when all the testing was done, I had realized that only taking a small sample of people to conduct this experiment on was not the best choice, because clearly six people are not enough to base the experiment on, given that there are almost eight billion people in this world. The age range was also not the best choice, because three age groups are clearly not enough as well. Although I did have a reasoning for picking this age group. My reasoning was that I had wanted to focus on people that surrounded my age, to see what work best for me and my friends so that I could give them tips about music whenever the occasion came up. The last thing I would have done was thrown in more genres of music. There are so many different types of songs in the world ranging from classical all the way to rock, and I had only chosen three. It was very likely that were I to have thrown in moe genres to test, my results could have been completely different and I would have gathered much more information to go off of. Also, an error that had been made was taking people’s pulses with my fingers. Although this was a very good method to use, evidently there could have been little slip-ups while I had been counting in my head. So if there could possibly be a next time, I would use a more definite and accurate method of measuring their heartbeat such as using a heart rate monitor. So to conclude: if I could have done this experiment all over again I would chose to have more test subjects in each age, more ages, more songs, and more genres, different method of taking pulse. CONCLUSIONTo conclude, this experiment was a success. Although there were many thing that could have been done to improve and broaden the testing, the range that I chose to do proved helpful to prove my hypothesis statement correct in the end. The song ‘Believer’ which was in the category for upbeat proved to raise heart rate the most, while the song ‘Everdream’ which was in the category for relaxing and calm music had proved to decrease and steady your heart rate the most. But who would care about this experiment? Well I believe that therapists would be the people who care the most. Evidently, therapeutic professionals deal with patients who have terrible mood swings or confusing mental states. Sometimes all they need is a method they could us to unwind, cheer up, or even have a good cry. If a therapist feels as though their patient needs to use a good method to get their patient to slow down or be happy, my experiment will surely help them. They can analyze the results and based on how the therapy session is going and how the patient is doing, they can recommend the method of listening to music.