In Oscar Wilde’s play

In Oscar Wilde’s play, “The importance of Being Earnest two women, Gwendolen and Cecily, where portrayed by men that have invented people. Jack Worthing also known as Ernest wants to marry Gwendolen Fairfax. Jack portrays Gwendolen by inventing a brother named Ernest whose identity he assumes so that he can enjoy himself without his friends and family knowing. Jack goes on lets Algernon know a secret that he “always pretended to have a younger brother of the name of Ernest, who lives in the Albany, and gets into the most dreadful scrapes” (Wilde, 16). Algernon falls in love with Cecily in doing so he portrays her by claiming to be Earnest. Cecily lets Algernon know that it had always been a girlish dream of hers to love someone whose name was Ernest and that there was something in that name that inspired confidence (Wilde 61). Both of the women are under representation that they are engaged to the same guy. Jack makes the statement that, “I’ve now realized for the first time in my life the vital Importance of Being Earnest” (Wilde, 106).

Recent changes in classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia

Recent changes in classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia:
Different subtypes of schizophrenia were there in the past, including:
• Paranoid schizophrenia
• catatonic schizophrenia
• disorganized, or hebephrenic schizophrenia
• schizoaffective disorder
• childhood schizophrenia

In 2013 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-V) changed the method of classification to bring all these categories under a single heading: schizophrenia.

The decision to eliminate these subtypes was based on the conclusion they had “low reliability, limited diagnostic stability and poor validity.” It was also concluded that they did not provide better treatment or did not predict how patients would respond to treatment. (APA)

Two other important changes that was made to the diagnostic criteria in 2013.
One was the removal of the requirement for a person to experience bizarre delusions and to hear two or more voices talking during an auditory hallucination to receive a positive diagnosis. The second was that, to receive a diagnosis, a person must have at least one of the following symptoms:
• Hallucinations
• Delusions
• Disorganized speech

Etiology/ RISK FACTORS/CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:
Recently, the etiology of schizophrenia is not known. There are various theories regarding its cause. These include:
• a genetic hypothesis,
• cortical disconnection syndrome,
• neurotransmitter dysfunction,
• failure to establish cerebral asymmetry, and
• A neuro-developmental syndrome. It is noted that these possible causes has been linked, and are not considered mutually exclusive. The current thesis focuses on Miller’s (1996, 2008) hypothesis.
1. Miller’s Hypothesis:
There is a strong theme of altered lateralization in the literature on schizophrenia. Miller (1996, 2008) has provided a comprehensive theory that proposes that the underlying enduring abnormal psychological traits observed in people with schizophrenia, as opposed to episodes of active psychosis, can be viewed as the result of an alteration in normal cerebral lateralization. Miller proposes that the functional specialization seen within each hemisphere, namely the location of language in the left hemisphere and visuospatial processing in the right hemisphere (in the right-handed, neurologically normal population) is due to a greater ratio of fast-conducting myelinated and large calibre axons to slow conducting unmyelinated
and small calibre axons in the right hemisphere when compared to the left
hemisphere. This greater ratio of fast conducting axons in the right hemisphere allows for fast parallel processing of visuospatial information. While the greater number of unmyelinated and small calibre axons in the left hemisphere affords the greater temporal resolution needed for speech and language functions located in that hemisphere. Furthermore, Miller proposes that this asymmetry of axonal myelination and calibre type is global within each hemisphere, as opposed to being present only within regions involved in language and visual processing (Miller, 1996). Miller also suggests that callosal projections are made up of axons projecting from one hemisphere to the other. This results in the common finding of faster right-to-left, relative to left-to-right, interhemispheric transfer times (IHTT) in the right-handed normal population (Barnett & Corballis, 2005; Brown, Larson, & Jeeves, 1994; Iwabuchi & Kirk, 2009; Marzi, Bisiacchi, & Nicoletti, 1991; Moes, Brown, & Minnema, 2007; Norwicka, Grabowska, & Fersten, 1996)

divorce has became a major issue in our society and many causes have been attributed to the incline in divorce rates

divorce has became a major issue in our society and many causes have been attributed to the incline in divorce rates. when a person thinks about the topic of divorce a reaction of pity usually turns to the parents instead of the emotionally scared children . although children are not the center or cause of the divorce they become part of the point that is involved. to decrease the suffer of these children we should decrease the rate of divorces. in this essay i am going to suggest some solutions to decline the rate of divorces and to decline the suffer of children.

Doughnuts

Doughnuts, even the ones with no toppings or fillings are one of the fattening breakfast items a person can eat. Sadly that does not stop people from devouring these sugar filled treats for breakfast. In today’s modern era bagels are considered to be the more traditional breakfast item than doughnuts. Even though bagels do not have any sugary glaze or fillings, they can be shockingly unhealthier than a typical doughnut a person buys at Krispy kreme doughnut shop. Basically,bagels and doughnuts can both be unhealthy because of their nutritional makeup.
Donuts are at type of fried dough that are shaped into a ring. Donuts are a popular treat around the world that are typically eaten in the morning with milk or coffee. Donuts can have many toppings onto them such as sprinkles, chocolate, glaze, powdered sugar,cinnamon, vanilla frosting, and just plain sugar. Donuts can also be injected with strawberry jelly, boston creme, custard, and lemon creme. The outside of a donut has a soft and delicate texture to it, also the inside of the donut is soft and hot when freshly made.
Donuts are obviously not the ideal food item to eat for breakfast because they are high in calories and high in carbohydrate. When someone goes to a local donut store the individual should be careful how many donuts the individual can consume. The more donuts an individual consumes the more exercise is required to burn off the extra calories and carbohydrates. For a lot of people going to the gym and working out is not possible due to the stresses of life. A regular chocolate frosted donut “has 200 calories

Theoretical background pertaining to knowledge sharing

Theoretical background pertaining to knowledge sharing(KS)
Drawing on previous research, knowledge sharing as the most significant component in knowledge management process, is defined as the interpersonal interactions involving the exchange and mutual absorption of knowledge among individuals and groups (Bartol and Srivastava, 2002; Pittino, et al., 2018). The importance of knowledge sharing manifests in integrating existing knowledge in teams and organisations, as an attempt to improve organisations and teams’ innovation, creativity, problem-solving ability, and performance (Cappelli and Keller, 2014; Quinn, Anderson, and Finkelstein, 1996). In this sense, it is crucial to investigate the underlying mechanism for teams’ knowledge sharing behaviours. Drawing wide range of studies, this research argues that the effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge sharing are intimately affected via factors lying in individual, team-level and knowledge-based perspectives (see figure 1).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Research framework
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With respect to individual perspective, there are tremendous researchers and practitioners suggest that psychological factors, such as, trusts and attitudes significantly affect knowledge sharing behavioural intention and behaviours (Wu, 2013; Bock et al., 2005). Indeed, individual behaviours are determined via behavioural intentions. Consistent with this perspective, Armitage and Conner (1999) suggest that intention can be perspective as the motivation required to stimulate a given behaviour. In this sense, team knowledge sharing behaviours highly hinge on the individual behavioural intentions towards knowledge sharing. According to Wu’s (2013) research, it argues that individual psychological factors, such as, trusts and positive attitude towards knowledge sharing are positively correlates to knowledge sharing in teams.

With reference to team-level factors, previous studies suggest that a conducive team context is particular important to team knowledge sharing behaviours. Consistent with this perspective, Wu, Hsu, and Yeh’s (2007) research confirms that organisational environment possesses significant affects to individual KS behaviours. In this sense, team environment similarly is associated with team knowledge sharing behaviours. For instance, social interaction factors, for instance, the frequency of communication, intimate team member relationship, and so forth are positively related to knowledge sharing behaviours. Analytically, it can be explained by Brewer’s (1979) research in which it suggests that the phenomenon of ‘in-group favouritism’ intensifies team members’ frequency of communication. Together, the relationship between team-level factors and KS behaviours could be identified.

Regarding knowledge-based perspective, the ontology of knowledge studies suggest that knowledge can be classified into tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge (Mullan et al., 2013; Sergeeva and Andreeva, 2016). In detail, tacit knowledge, such as, personal skills, experiences, and so forth is difficult to transfer, whereas explicit knowledge, such as, knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalised is rather easy to transfer (Mullan et al., 2013; Sergeeva and Andreeva, 2016; Hislop, 2013). According to Hislop’s (2013) conduit model of knowledge sharing, knowledge is shared by the transferral of explicit and codified knowledge from sender to receiver (see figure 2). In this sense, knowledge sharing intimately correlates to the forms of knowledge. Hence, knowledge-based factors could affect the team KS behaviours.

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Conduit model of knowledge sharing
Next sept is to build connections between leadership and knowledge sharing.

Bibliography:
Leon, R. (2017). Measuring the Knowledge Economy: A National and Organizational Perspective. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 5(2), pp.227-249.

Zanini, M.T., and Musante, M. (2013). Trust in the knowledge economy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 28(6), 487-493.

Donlagic, S., Fazlic, S., and Nuhanovic, A. (2015). Introducing a Framework for Knowledge Economy Development in Transition Countries: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ekonomski Vjesnik, 28(1), 257-266.

Wu, W. (2013). To Share Knowledge or Not: Dependence on Knowledge-Sharing Satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(1), pp.47-58.

Dyer, J. and Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high?performance knowledge?sharing network: the Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), pp.345-367.

Cappelli, P. and Keller, J. (2014). Talent Management: Conceptual Approaches and Practical Challenges. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behaviour, 1(1), pp.305-331.

Quinn, J.; Anderson, P. and Finkelstein, S. (1996). Managing professional intellect: making the most of the best. Harvard Business Review, Vol.74(2), p.71-80.

Hong, D., Suh, E. and Koo, C. (2011). Developing strategies for overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing based on conversational knowledge management: A case study of a financial company. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(12), pp.14417-14427.

Rosen, B., Furst, S. And Blackburn, R. (2007). Overcoming Barriers to Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Teams. Organizational Dynamics, 36(3), pp.259-273.

Bartol, K. M., and Srivastava, A. (2002). Encouraging knowledge sharing: The role of organizational reward systems. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(1), 64–76.

Pittino, D., Barroso Martínez, A., Chirico, F. and Sanguino Galván, R. (2018). Psychological ownership, knowledge sharing and entrepreneurial orientation in family firms: The moderating role of governance heterogeneity. Journal of Business Research, 84, pp.312-326.

Soltani, Z., and Navimipour, N. J. (2016). Customer relationship management mechanisms: a systematic review of the state of the art literature and recommendations for future research. Computers in Human Behaviour, 61, 667-688.

Bock, G.-W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y.-G., and Lee, J.-N. (2005). Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly, 29, 87-111.

Armitage, C. J., and Conner, M. (1999). Distinguishing perceptions of control from self- efficacy. Predicting consumption of a low-fat diet using the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 72–90.

Wu, W., Hsu, B. and Yeh, R. (2007). Fostering the determinants of knowledge transfer: a team-level analysis. Journal of Information Science, 33(3), pp.326-339.

Brewer, M. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), pp.307-324.

Baumeister, R. F., Schmeichel, B. J., and Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation and the executive function. The self as controlling agent. In A. W. Kruglanski ; E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology. Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 516–539). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Mullan, B., Allom, V., Brogan, A., Kothe, E. and Todd, J. (2014). Self-regulation and the intention behaviour gap. Exploring dietary behaviours in university students. Appetite, 73, pp.7-14.

Hislop, D. (2013). Knowledge management in organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Penang Mutiara hotel

Penang Mutiara hotel , being one of the best hotels in Penang, have managed to be strong very highly competitive environment. There are too many luxurious hotels in the South-East Asia region but some of the can compare with the Penang Mutiara. In this essay I will talk about too things. First, how the hotel’s management will make sure that the way it manages the hotel is appropriate to the way it competes for business. Second, how could the hotel management implement any changes in strategy.
First the hotel general manager has the best vision and very clear focused beliefs about the importance to have an effective operation where customers have every right to demand for the best service to take. To compete for business in the hotel industry world, thel manager have to make impeccable quality strategy where he recognizes that it is impeccable service which gives our competitive advantage tp success. Since it is cheaper to have regular guests than to get new ones, he learn the advantage of retaining guests through providing impeccable services which will in a way retain high occupancy rates to keep costs down while achieving reasonable profit. To achieve that, he put basic standards for his staff to be very well trained, knowledge, sensitive to think ahead in order to provide basic and value services to satisfy the customer’s . The ability to remember regular customer’s informations can also add to a personal touch when their next visit. Plus, quality services in terms of providing good design and top-class materials and being able to practise good preventive maintenance to the building and equipment is another way of sustaining high class image and luxurious to create a comfortable feeling to welcome the guests. The manager measure the performance based on the five performance objectives : Quality, Speed, Dependability, Flexibility and Cost.

On the other hand the general manager should introduce new strategies to supplement and implement further changes to enhance the existing strategy. Speedily new changes in the short term, supply chain management method can be used to improve internal processes rapidly can also be utilised to stay competitive.The strength of Penang Mutiara includes the strategic location of being secluded and tranquil and with the general manager who has vast experience at managing luxury hotel worldwide, he has the ability to lead and influence the staff to bring about better internal functions.To sustain existing quality strategy,the general manager can adopt proactive approach to enhance and maintain consistentancy in quality and level of services by conducting staff training, retrain and upgrading of skills to meet the volatile market demand and unpredictable customer expectation. He should always review and set new service standards for the staff for continuous improvement, conduct regular focus group studies to predict future customer requirements in terms of service and facilities, minimise and eliminate high employee turnover at the front desk by taking good care of staff welfare, and exercise job rotation of staff to promote innovation and creativity in the job.With the target group of corporate businessman and to enhance its competitiveness, the general manager can adopt new flexibility strategy by utilisation of most advance reservations technology and internet for hotel reservations. He can also offer online competitive rates while ensuring complete security of customers’ personal information and credit card details and offer instant confirmation for hotel reservations to promote efficiency.

Marketing strategies is very important vision for the profitability and value of the hotel such as introduction of frequent user programme, loyalty card program with further savings for travel and vacation plans. Hotel can also host elite social and sporting events which include International wine and food festival, polo championship, international cup to provide a platform to showcase its various expertises in lifestyle creation which can help to boost high occupancy rates also.

Before the inception of technology

Before the inception of technology, people usually read books, socialise with friends, for example,talking to each other and hanging out. In this day and age, technology is changing so rapidly that a lot of people are trying to catch up with this trend. They are many reasons for this phenomenon, including adopting the latest vogue, how to dress and look like celebrities. . Let us take Kanye West as an example. When he designs the sneaker for Adidas, it has become the hot trend around the world, and many teens have copied it. Nowadays, social media is a powerful platform where thousands of people keep in touch with their relatives, friends, taking pictures or checking in locations, and they cannot live without it. Apparently, the development of mobile technology and social network play a crucial role in people’s daily life.

When was technology invented, and how does it affect passive people? First, Nikola Tesla, once a mechanical, electrical engineer and physicist initiated an idea to build a ” world wireless system” in the early 1900s. Later in early 1960s, MIT’s J.C.R Licklider popularized the idea of an “Intergalactic Network” of computers then the scientists discovered the “packet switching” which later became a massive building brick of the Internet. In the 1960s, the ARPANET was created the prototype Internet they used the packet switching to allow numerous computers to connect to a single network. In January 1983, ARPANET was approved TCP/IP and the result of them instigate to unite “network network” that became the modern Internet. It became to be more famous in 1990 after the computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee made-up the World-Wide-Web this one was popularized to anyone and attract people for using the Internet. Then, the first social media coming out was ‘SixDegrees.com’ in 1997 that allowed users to list friends, family members, and external connection to join the site, but it was just viable for 4 years from 1997-2001. Following it was ‘Blogger’ in 1999, ‘Friendster’ in 2002, ‘Myspace’ in 2003, ‘ Facebook’ in 2004, and ‘Twitter’ in 2006. Yet,the most ubiquitous social network is ‘Facebook’ which has 2.2 billion users globally. Facebook affects almost all people in activities they do. Today, we can see people from another country and don’t have to buy ticket to go to theirs.Internet helps connect people, giving them the opportunities to interact with each other. Network generation has also contributed to education, business, exercise,etc. People used to using the computer after school or work but now they are just carrying the phone because is portable, and people have a lot of things to see, watch and read. They want to find a person who agree with their opinions, or make them happy. So that the reason why

Why do young people spend hours on social media? How often do they use social media in a day? In my country, Vietnam, using technology is getting more and more popular, and it has became a must activity in each person’s life here. According to the survey titled “Global Attitude Survey 2017” which considered how people from 38 countries follow and distinguish news media,Vietnam was the fourth highest in terms of daily use of social media sites for news. The survey was performed among 1,000 Vietnamese aged 15 to49In Vietnam,81% of 18-29 years old following that is 44% of 30-49 years old and last one is approximately 3% of over 50 years old as a daily sources of news. Referring to statista website, in 2018 the number of social network users in Vietnam will increase to more than 1.25 million people. The major part of them are using the Facebook and become their favorite. Small part of that also contains that the price of the smartphone, because some of the mobile phone brand names are creating the phone at affordable prices. Facebook also said that the Vietnamese use it to chat with friends, visit pages and buy things online. A normal person surf the internet 3 hours 32 minute a day on average for 2 devices which are tablet and laptop.
Spend time on the Internet? In my opinion I know that technology bring a lot of benefit in life and development of every country in the world but it also have disadvantage that when the technology have development that much. However, social network also bring the harm with it like in development country addicted to phone are not strange things anymore. Like another teenager before and after doing done the homework I was online social media,in there I’m like to share memes, about celebrities or some songs but it make you you feel addicted when you surfing. On the weekend i’m always spend 5 to 7 hours online on the Internet it very hard to not get addicted.
There are a huge different about before and after have the Internet in Vietnam. Vietnam officially have the Internet was in November 19,1997 and it connected all around the world. Just about 21 years but you can see the huge difference even the Internet or a lot of building that are rise in every years. When Internet they are first came in there was small amount of people know how to using it. With the person who born before digital age in their memories their childhood was inundate in joyful more than now because everyone in the place they live are friends and communicate to each other now in modern world they don’t even talk to each other just in their house for the whole day for surfing the Internet or Massive Multiplayer Online (MMO) game. When the K-drama not became viral like right now in their memory there are have a lot of movie now they still can remember the main character of the movie or everyone in your hamlet concentrate in one place just to watch a movie or listen to a song in just one television. Twenty years ago or ten years ago snack don’t have much types like now they just eat fruits in their garden or just eat the local snack because it cheap. Also their are the big difference that dinnertime is the time that family can talk to each other after day work at office or study at school and find topics to talk like what happen with them today or after dinner everyone in family seat on sofa together to watch a series or news together but now is difference when dinner teenager always look at the phones and don’t want to talk to their parent or chatting with friends while eating when they spend the whole day on the Internet. Or before Internet was exist a lot of people are using letter like the tools to communicate with people when they are far from each other like countryside now they have smartphone and using it to talk to each other don’t have to wait few days or month to read a letter from that person. With me it was an alarm for the teenager all around the world about addicted to the social network.

Introduction This assignment is mainly based on strategic management and leadership skills

Introduction
This assignment is mainly based on strategic management and leadership skills. It elaborates the links between strategic management, Leadership and organizational direction. This report has four tasks. Task one is about understanding the relationship between strategic management and leadership. Second task is talking about applying management and leadership theories to support organizational direction. Task three and four are concerning on assessing leadership requirements and developing leadership skills.
According to the guidelines of this assignment, it is necessary to provide practical examples to explain above mentioned tasks. To fulfill this requirement this assignment has selected “Cargills Ceylon PLC.”
Cargills Ceylon PLC
It was incorporated in 1844 as a general warehouse in Colombo by William Miller and David Sime Cargill. In 1946 it was incorporated as a public limited company and it started its first supermarket chain in 1983. At present Cargills Ceylon PLC operates mainly in Retail sector, FMCG sector(Fast Moving Consumer Goods), Restaurants, Banking Sector and distribution sector.It Owns 11 subsidiaries.
Cargills is the leader of modern Retail Market in Sri Lanka. It owns 315 stores covering all districts in Sri Lanka. According to the brand finance Index of 2016, Cargills has been rated as the tenth most valuable brand in Sri Lanka with AA+ rating. It is only retailer brand which has placed its name in the top ten of national brands.(bloomberg.com, 2017)
Cargills Ceylon PLC Entered in to FMCG sector in 1993. Now it manufactures processed meats (Goldi, Sams), Dairy Products (Cargills Ice cream, Kotmale Products) Agrifood (Kist jam, sauce, cordial) and confectioneries (Kist biscuits). Its Dairy Ice cream is the leading ice cream in Sri Lanka.
In 1996 Cargills acquired KFC franchise and today it is the largest and most popular international restaurant chain in the country. There are 27 outlets across the county. Another restaurant owned by Cargills Ceylon PLC is TGI Fridays. It opened in 2013 to cater to localswith flavorful American style cuisine.

Organizational structure of Cargills Ceylon PLC

Source (Cargills Ceylon annual report,2017)

Task 01
1.1 Relationship between strategic management and leadership

1.1.1 Strategic Management
According to the Neil Ritson (2011) strategic management is the organized development of the resources of the functional areas such as financial, manufacturing, marketing, technological and human resource. It is an art of managing resource to maximize the ability of achieving goals and objectives of the organization. It is a continuous goal oriented process of evaluating and controlling of the business. Strategy always acts as a mediator of matching organization andthe environment. Strategy is a primary and crucial process of in any business. Strategies should be established at the initial level and those strategies are the basis for other process of the organization.
Strategy can be identified as a well-definedroadmap for the organization. It defines vision, mission, objectives and goals of the organization.Keeping main attention on the goals of the organization and incorporate various functional areas to ensure those areas are interconnected well. (managementstudyguide.com, 2017)
1.1.2 Leadership
Kevin Kruse(2013) says that Leadership is a social influential process of maximizing others’ efforts towards achieving goals. Or in another way it can be defined as utilizing strategy in the management of human resources. H.Mintzberg (1989) says there are ten roles and three categories of leadership. It can be presented as follows.
Category
Interpersonal Figurehead ,Leader, Liasion
Informational Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson
Decisional Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator

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Interpersonal Category involves in providing information and ideas.

Figurehead – This role is a source of inspiration. Social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities are handled and others see this figurehead as a person with authority.

Leader – manage the performance and responsibilities of everyone in the group.

Liaison – Maintaining Effective communication network with internal and external parties on behalf of the organization.

Informational Category involves in seeking out information connected to organization and industry, environmental changes. This category monitors their subordinates in terms of both productivity and their well-being.

Monitor – Seeking, Monitoring, Evaluating of information of Industry,

Disseminator –communicating valuable information to team.

Spokesperson – This role speaks for their organization. They Transmit information about organization and its goals to the external environment.
Decisional Category involves in utilizing information
Entrepreneur – This role solves problems, generate new ideas and implement them. Generate and control change inside the group.

Disturbance Handler – Solving disputes arising in unexpected moments

Resource Allocator –bets utilization of resources are done by this role. Allocating funding, assigning staff and other organizational resources are man duties of this role.

Negotiator –taking part in, and direct, significant negotiations within the team.

1.1.3 Relationship between Strategic Management and Leadership
Strategic Management can’t survive without good leadership. A leadership acts as a bridge between strategic management and organization’s goals. Strategies are developed for the purpose of achieving organization goals and targets.Leadership managesHuman resourcein a way which improves and maximizes the capabilities of achieving business objectives. In other words strategic management sets the path towards goals and objectives and leadership directs people efficiently and effectively on that path. Combination of sound leadership and well established strategic management will definitely accomplish goals. (Colleen, S.2015)
Cargills Ceylon PLC is one of best example to elaborate the importance of relationship of strategic management and leadership.As above mentioned it was started as a general ware house in 1844. And in 1981Cargils was acquired by Ceylon theatres. After that Mr A. Page was the appointed As Managing Director. Under this new management Cargills established its first supermarket chain. By now Cargills is the leader in modern retail industry in Sri Lanka. And in 2016 it was ranked as the 10th valuable brand in Sri Lanka. The Cargills Group CEO and Group Chairman are responsible for leadership and promoting high standards of integrity, transparency, and accountability. The chairman is mainlyproviding leadership to the board to ensure that board functions are carried out in a proper way. Group CEO develops, implements strategies and manage performance of business unit in order to achieve group’s long term goals.

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1.2 Analyse how leadership styles can have an impact on organisation’s strategic decision making process

Leadership is an ability to encourage creativity and innovation while stimulating the subordinates to develop their own capabilities and values which help them to improve their individual performance. (Research papers, 2015).American management consultant and Economist, Peter Ducker once said “effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked, leadership is defined by results not attributes”.(Success.com, 2017).
1.2.1 Leadership Styles
A leadership style can be identified through their characteristic behaviors when directing, motivating, guiding, and managing groups of people. (Cherry.K, 2017).Psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three main styles of leadership. Those are Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez faire. In addition to those styles researchers have identified many other attribute patterns of leadership.Some of them areBureaucratic Leadership Style,Charismatic Leadership andPersuasive Style of Leadership. Leadership should be aligned with the goals and objectives of the business. Therefore Leaders practise to use mixture of those styles. (Mars, 2009)
Authoritarian Leadership style (Autocratic) – All the decisions are made independently by this leader without considering ideas of team members. What, when and how things should be done is decided by this leader and he focuses on his command and subordinates’ control. In the other sense this leadership style believes on rules as only method to get the maximum from the team. Autocratic leaders have less confidence on their followers. So automatically they discourage innovations. It will result to less creativity. When there is a circumstance call for quick decision or decisive actionAuthoritarian Leadership can be applied. (Cherry.K, 2017)
Democratic Leadership style (Participative leadership)-These leaders distribute responsibilities among team members, Empower them and provide them chances to participate for the decision making process. This will create well experienced mature cooperative teams who are dedicating to achieve their team’s goal.Democratic leadership style keeps followers of the team always engaged in the process.
Laissez-Faire Leadership (Delegative leadership) – Delegative leaders allow their subordinates to make decisions. They provide very little of guidance. So followers are working with plenty of freedom. Leaders provide required resources. Sometimes this lack of direction will result in disputes among followers because they will blame each other’s for mistakes. But if there are well experienced high quality subordinates this leadership style is acceptable. (Grill.E2016)

Bureaucratic Leadership Style- This leadership style is one of oldest leadership style. It based on strict hierarchies, written job descriptions, and organization structures. These leaders are structured and follow procedures. Each and every decision and implementation is done in an exact way. They follow rules strictly. This style is suitable for large organizations, forces and government sector organizations who count on reliable results.But these leaders don’t allow their team to do innovations. This style is suitable where followers are performing routing tasks. And structure is highly repeatable. But this style will be inefficient in a situation where the organizations depend on creativity, flexibility and innovation (Spahr.P2015)
Charismatic Leadership style – This style encourages subordinates through powerful and articulate communication, persuasion and personality. These leaders process capabilities to dissect and make sense of any disorganization with the team. Charismatic leader uses an emotional way to motivate and inspire his team members. It is very difficult to develop “charisma” since it is almost of divine origin. They are leaders with a clear visualization in organization or politics and the ability to engage with a bulky audience.(teamworkdefinition.com, 2017)
Persuasive Leadership Style – Accordingto Stephan J. Carroll and Patrick C.Flood this leadership pattern is between Authoritarian Leadership style and Democratic Leadership style. These leaders are passive and aggressive. He has the entire control over the decision making process. But this leader works with his team and he always tries to convince his team members of his plans. This leader is more aware of his subordinates. But it does not mean that this leader is more inclusive of team members.

1.3 Evaluate how above explained leadership styles can be different situations faced by the organisations

The main element of effective businessis having talented team of leaders. Each leader has his own type of leadership style. To maximize the ability to accomplish goals and objectives of organization these different kinds of styles should be matched with the most suitable situations. And also each leader should know when to unveil a particular approach. (Germano, M.A.2010).
When the team is included untrained new staffthey need lot of supervision and guidance. Then autocratic leader can play his role efficiently. If there is limited time and need to make quick decisions then also autocratic leader style will be useful. In addition to these situations,If leader is the most knowledgeable person of the unit, staff do not respond to any other leadership style and if they Challenge leader’s power then also autocratic leadership is suitable. (Cherry, K. 2017),But if there is a requirement of creativity and innovations to achieve set goals and objectives then this leadership style will not be acceptable.

Democratic Leaders are acceptable when there are well experienced and professional teams. And also if the situations are changing rapidly and the leader has to make complex decisions which require lots of input democratic leadership is more effective. Moe over that if the organization needs to encourage team building and participation and needs to provide opportunities for subordinates to develop a high sense of individual development and job satisfaction, then also democratic leadership can be used.

Bureaucratic leadership is most suitable if the team has to perform repetitive tasks or there are some tasks that required cash handling. And also if the team members should have proper understanding on structures and procedures this leadership style is suitable.(Spahr.P.2015). But if there are subordinates who think out of the box and if team members have lost their interest in their jobs, this style would be in efficient.
Laissez- faireleadership style is known as “hands off” style.When team members are highly skilled and have the ability to work their own then this style is effective. And if team members have passion and intrinsic motivation for work then expect independence highly. If team members are trust worthy and expert then laissez faire leader is suitable. But if the team members are lack of knowledge and experience this style won’t be worked. . Because of the uninvolvement of the leader some team members also can be less attention towards their tasks. (Germano, M.A.2010)

2.1 Review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organizational strategy.
Leadership and management theories can put a considerable impact on organizational strategy. According to MeyerOrganizational strategy is a process of making, implementing and evaluating of decisions which are taken to achieve set goals of an organization. In other words we can say a strategy is the direction and scope of the organization which assists to achieve advantages in changing environment through utilization of resources and capabilities while fulfilling expectations of stakeholders.
2.1.1 Transformational Leadership theory-This theory pays concentration on development requirements for positive changes in subordinators. According to Robbins and Coulter these leaders encourage and stimulate their team to accomplish set goals in an effective way. Transformational leaders use several mechanisms to develop the motivation, confidence and performance of the team. In 1985 industrial psychologist B.A.Bass introduced four main elements of transformational leadership.
i. Idealized Influence – through this model leaders build trust with his team and the team, in returncultivate confidence in leader. This leader act as a role model and shows charismatic personality. Idealized influence can be displayed through the wiliness to take risk and to the degree which extent leader follows ethical principles and values in his actions.
ii. Inspirational Motivation – These leaders inspire their team towards innovations through inspirational motivation. They always encourage employee to become a part of the overall organization. They articulate clear and appealing view of the future. Providing high standard challenges, communicating optimistic future goals and adding value to the task of present are some inspirational motivation tactics used by these leaders.
iii. Intellectual stimulation- Through this factor transformational leader motivates their subordinates to be more creative. Leader develops team’s awareness and responsiveness regarding different types of situations and give opportunities to to use their capabilities to face those situations effectively.
iv. Personal and individual attention – This leader pays an individualized consideration for each employee. It gives him a better idea on each employee’s knowledge level, talents and capacity. So the leader can easily and effectively manage tasks among team members.
(James.A,2013).
2.1.2 Situational leadership theory – According to the Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey in Management of Organizational Behavior, there is no “one size fits all” approach to leadership. Different types of situations need different types of leadership and management styles. Three main steps of situational leadership theory are identifying the most important task, diagnosing the readiness of subordinates and deciding the matching leadership style.
There are mainly four types of situational leadership. They are as follows;

Source (Blanchard.A , Hersey.P, 1970)
S1 – Telling/Directing – When the team has less willingness and capacity to perform tasks and they are afraid of taking new effort then the leader has to tell what should be done and how it should be done.
S2 – Selling/Coaching – This leader has more communication with his team. This style is more acceptable when the team is interested in their task but their knowledge and ability is low. Coaching is also same to directing. But it differs from it because couching style gets new ideas and suggestions from their team. This has two way communication. The leader spends more time to listen to his team, advice them and support them. This process builds followers’ self esteem, commitment and they will gain the necessary capabilities to perform well in next time
S3 – Participating/Consulting – These leaders believe on relationships more than direction. This style should be used in the situation where the team has high capacity and ability to complete the tasks. But their willingness is low. Leaders do not want to direct the team by saying what to do or how to do, since the team has very good understanding on the activities or the undertaken project. Leader should try to motivate and build their confidence. Listening, Praising to team members are most effective ways to eliminate their demotivation.
S4 – Delegating – When the team members have high level of capacity and ability to work as well as high willingness towards the tasks. These kinds of teams need less amount o supervision or support. These leaders trust their team. Leader keeps the involvement on decision making and problem solving but control is on the hands of the team.

Maturity level of the team decides which style should be used to maximize their ability; capacity and willingness. Hersey and Blanchard suggested four types of maturity levels as follows;
M1 – Team has no ability no knowledge and willingness to perform. S1 is more suitable.
M2- Team wants to perform well. Their willingness is high. But ability is low. S2 is suitable
M3- Team has ability and knowledge but they they are not confidence enough to undertake responsibilities. S3 is more acceptable
M4- Team has ability and willingness to perform. S4 is more suitable

Situational leadership has a simple scale, so it is very easy apply and Easy to understand. And the Leaders have authorization to adjust management styles as they see fit. So with right type of leader this model is very comfortable.
But this model will not be acceptable when there are leaders with limited powers but structurally in a leadership position. And also this model can’t distinguish difference between leadership and management. Situational leader may divert attention away from long run strategies.
2.1.3 Contingency Theory – In 1960 Fred Fielder introduced contingency theory. According to him effectiveness of leadership depends not only on the style of leading but on the control over circumstances. It depends on several factors as follows;
Makeup of the group (Relationship of the group)- This factor describes the relationship between leader and the team. Whether the leader trusts his team or not, whether team has proven their capabilities or whether team is full of conflicts.
Nature of the task – Nature of the undertaken tasks decides leadership styles. If the tasks are clear and routine basis then employees need less supervision.
Power of the leader – Power can be determined through hierarchical position, knowledge and interaction with employees.
Relationship: leader – group Nature of the work Leader Position Power Efficient leadership style
Good Routine Strong Task-oriented
Good Routine Weak Task-oriented
Good Uncertain Strong Task-oriented
Good Uncertain Weak People-oriented
Poor Routine Strong People-oriented
Poor Uncertain Weak Task-oriented
Source (Fiedler.F,1976)

Looking closely

Looking closely, we can tell that there are advance rate and the increasing dependency on technology advancement in this 21st century, the question that needs to be asked is how technology is changing work and employment the organisation is extremely concern for the entire business environment and also for scholars of organizational psychology as well as organizational behaviour. This paper tends to analyze and describe how technology is indeed changing work and organisations the modern setting. Again, the paper as well looks at the attempts made to construe the main focus and purpose of modern research on the adverse effects of technology on work and organizations. The major keyword is technology.
INTRODUCTION
We are living in a world today where technology is rapidly growing, most especially information and communication technology is indeed having adverse changing in the manner businesses outline value, how and the way people should work, how they should work and lastly the manner and how individual should relate, interact and communicate.
In this question, how technology changes work and organisation are clearly stated.
According to (Beniger 1986, Bradley & Nolan 1998, Bradley et al. 2016), highlighted in their statement that, the adverse effects of technology has indeed over the past had a reference about the history of humanly been recorded. The stage of development and the rapid moving forward in the area of civilization can be categorised in three various periods of time according to their sequential central technological underlying framework in their dispositions looking insight in the agricultural period, the industrial period, and the digital period which are various areas of work. Fortunately, for each of these periods has greatly improved through the acquisition of new information and knowledge since technology is involved and has transcended them all. Nevertheless, each of these periods of dispositions has enacted new economic structures, social procedure, cultural appearance, and work models.
AGRICULTURAL DISPENSATION: In the agricultural period which has to do with the area of agriculture, people mainly give priority to the usage of the power of natural forces which are mostly known as wind and water. During that period, the most considered and usefulness of resources by people was land, livestock, and agricultural means. But during this period, technology has indeed changed the pattern of work for those in the sector of business, especially whereby the owner of those resources has adequate possession and dominance over certain information.
INDUSTRIAL DISPENSATION: In the industrial period, people focus more on the use of industrial ability to get the required work done, the purchase/acquisition of former physical resources, and a case of larger production operating in inline with the legal factor of costs increment. On this, when the necessary factors of production which are land as natural resources, labour as human efforts and capital as finances) are of high output and lacks no inefficiency, the need of manufacturing additional unit will be expensive than the average to be produced. Technology has course changes in work and organisation in this period, through which the availability and abundance a civilisation of material usage was actualized through an increase in the productivity of the physical space in the process of building factories and setting up industrial complexes etc. There is mutual coordination which creates an aura among producers, distributors, and consumers alike; it also brings recorded advanced productivity; ef?ciency in process delivery; and given adequate and calls for open attention to transaction costs were certainly all vital as significance to the success of industrial societies.
DIGITAL DISPENSATION: Here, people are prioritizing and have preoccupied their mind on the posterity and exchange of products and services through digitalized data, of information, and knowledge. Changes occurred in work and organisation by technology through the digital period. In this period, it is based on infrastructural facilities made up of information and communication technologies both of which are very essential. These upgraded infrastructural facilities are in a way not just there in assisting people, individual etc do things better and rapidly than in the former period; rather, it is bringing new methods of adjustment, coordination and mutual relations on activities more readily, by a means of reduced costs which is controlled by the effect of the law of diminishing cost. Through the essence of digital goods, there is a reduction in the cost of goods, a situation where the other cost of factors of production remains the same. Through the assessment of digital period, every other thing has fallen into place, control and well utilised as compared to the way it was before. The development of computers and communication technologies came into existence and now growing rapidly causing changes in work and organisation through the inception digital period. These technologies should be appreciated in all aspect because they have indeed changed work situation to more useful, less cost, increase productivity etc and an effect on the organisation.
In the second part of the question is centred on techno change management for the need to use IT to drive organisation change. Information technology is a very powerful tool in today’s world as it transforms the world in various spheres of life of which organisation is not an exemption. IT has indeed brought about new revolution in organisation where all work activities in organisation are computerised in software management which has made work easier and very effective and efficient, less stressful and result is being actualised within a short while as compared to using physical power to carry out some work activities in organisation which takes time, slow the work and burdensome thereby affecting organisational performance, productivity and organisational development and change.
Of course, when organisations in a way bring new information technologies in place, the need for important changes in people’s work in the organisation and the results of organisational performance is often times not frequently present. Let’s not forget that using IT to drive organisational change is not that easy reason being that, it calls for high escalating variables, even though it brings about organisational change. Using IT to drive organisational change focuses on some key points that can drive organisational change which are;
ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE: Through the use of IT, it brings about improvements in the organisation as result of a positive change in the organisation.
ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH: Most organisations growth emerges through the use of IT in the organisation. The changes in the organisation could not have taken place in the absence of IT. To further buttress this point is a case study of the white elephant restaurant that prepares and serves Thai cuisine meals to the customer. The organisation decided to imbibe in this new development of IT in order to drive organisational change which indeed was achieved. Through this IT, the leader needed to change the manner in which the waiters relate to customers and that could not have been actualised without IT.
CROSS FUNCTIONING OF ORGANISATION: In this regards, most managers of an organisation use IT to drive organisational change which is a start-up for organisational success. To further buttress this point is a case study of Novo Nordisk pharmaceutical company, Denmark that has indeed utilised the use of IT in it operation for the production of insulin in a more modern and unique way which has brought about success in the organisation. Novo Nordisk needed to pose a variation on the part of its personnel where everyone in various departments is very busy and highly committed to their work as well as being focused to attain sustainable performance of their various departments in other to move the organisation forward through absorbing of IT.
Through recent studies, it has shown that/ IT indeed has made important contributions to business value. New IT indeed can serve as a power-driven force to call for change, existing state of organisational are most times powerful. For change to be very successful in organisational performance there should be a well structured techno-change solution that will correlate the changes of new IT in the organisation to create that support.
Techno-change is certainly the use of IT to drive achievement in organisational accomplishment. A successful techno-change is attributed holistically. In achieving the end product, both are the characteristics of the solution to techno-change as well as the plan of techno-change and the fulfilment process is indeed very important.

To compare these approaches are centred on the similarities and differences of both.
For participatory design approach, it is a system that most support the nature and the kind of work that is certainly made use of. In using IT to drive organisational change, of course when organisations in a way bring new information technologies in place, the need for important changes in people’s work in the organisation and the results of organisational performance is often times not frequently present.
Participatory design approach has much to present. It brings about benefit which can happen in terms of making clear goals and needs, planning logically connected focus for change, relating business oriented and have a clear vision of positive participation in various aspects which connote success. Through recent studies, it has shown that/IT indeed has made important contributions to business value. New IT indeed in a way can serve a powerful driven force to call for change, existing state of organisational are most times powerful. For change to be very successful in organisational performance there should be a well structured techno-change solution that will correlate the changes of new IT in the organisation to create that support. (Markus) in his write-up, “techno-change” indeed combines a bigger information technology (IT) to bring to existence a technology-driven organisational change. Here ( Jesper Simonsen, Morten Hertzum) said, what is to be the original is not a just mere technical solution or just organisational change, but the two of them in practice.
Organisations can perform in so many important and esteem ways in regards to IT aside just actualising organisational change and result. Orlikowski and Hofman pointed out that, there is an alternative model for controlling technological change and not just but change in other areas.
There is an advance growth in organisational performance as a result of a well-constructed techno-change. The sustained participatory design approach tries to use a useful system for the implementation to achieve a result.
In techno-change, most knowledge in the area of trying to use IT as a means to drive organisation is distinctive. On the other hand, participatory design approach stated the need for a system to permit for unforeseen variation of both emergent and opportunity-based to take place.
Their strength is; first, there is a totality of desired change with a test that is aimed at implementing an entire IT-integrated EPR system to coordinate and assist various functioning in the organisation. Second, the crave for a change was stated in the earlier experiment where there was full participation of staff and other people in the various unit to ensure an effective implementation. Third, is the evaluation of the desired changes that imbibe a qualitative analysis system that checks for numbering of explicitly stated effects.
The various weaknesses are, first, the motivation of people were not highly intensified in involving much to a participatory design approach of which the call for it was proposed. Second, one of the major weaknesses is lack means to the coup and adjusts the motivations and concerns of a great number of stakeholders in the organisation. Third, is the inability of a vivid impression to coup with a stepwise implementation process. In all, the participatory design should be much demanded coping with these weaknesses.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, in the light of the above analysis, description and discussion of the relations, it clearer to comprehend technology in the various areas and the participatory design revolving in the organisation and organisational change management. It also made provision for changes in work and organisations, the drive for organisational change.

In several stories of Karadi Tales

In several stories of Karadi Tales, the popular audio book series for kids Karnad has played the role of Karadi, the Sootradhar (narrator). In the audio book of Kalam’s autobiography by Charkha Audio books Wings of Fire,. Karnad has been the voice of APJ Abdul Kalam, Former President of India.
Girish Karnad is one of the leading playwrights in India. He is associated to the Kannada theatre. Although rooted in Indian mythology and history, his plays at the same time convey a strong and unmistakable modern sensibility. The existentialist crisis of modern man is very easily conveyed through strong individuals who are locked in intense psychological and philosophical conflicts through the medium of myths. Karnad has been accused of escaping into the past, said Laxmi Chandrashekhar, an academic and an active figure in Kannada theatre. But the use of mythology in most modern literature validates individual experience and universalizes it. And I think Kaman has been able to do that.