When it comes
to selecting the fecal matter to be used as an organic fertilizer, there is
nothing more desirable than Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter. Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter for fertilizing is magnificent for it makes great soil amendment,
Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter
adds organic matter and increases the water holding capacity and beneficial
biota in the soil, although there are also some issues concerning it.

     Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter has been used as a
fertilizer for a very long time, but part of what makes it so powerful is also
what makes it potentially damaging to plants. Fresh Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter is wet and stinky. It
is a combination of both manure and liquid that is high in ammonia which can also
break down into nitrogen, making the fecal matter fetid.

gallus domesticus fecal matter fertilizer
is very high in Nitrogen (N) and also contains a great amount of Potassium (K)
and Phosphorus (P). It contains 0.8% Potassium, 0.4% Phosphorus and 0.9% to
1.5% Nitrogen. The high amount of Nitrogen and balanced nutrients is the main
reason that Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter compost is the best kind of fecal matter to use. One chicken produces
approximately 8-11 pounds (3-5 kg.) of fecal matter monthly. Nitrogen as a
booster for the growth of vegetables and plants. Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter is known to be superior
to composted fecal matter from other
species. Ovis aries (sheep), Bos Taurus (cow) and other composted animal fecal
matter are about 1% Nitrogen, 1% Phosphorus and 1% Potassium by weight. Gallus
gallus domesticus fecal matter, on the
other hand, can reach up to 5% Nitrogen, 3% Phosphorus and 2% Potassium by weight.
As another bonus, fecal matter from egg-laying
Gallus gallus domesticus contains more
calcium by weight thanks to the eggshell production process.

the high Nitrogen in the Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter is dangerous to plants if it has not been properly composted. If
unprocessed Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter is used, it could damage roots and possibly kill vegetables and
plants. Composting Gallus gallus domesticus
fecal matter mellows the Nitrogen (N) and makes the fecal matter more suitable
for plants.


gallus domesticus fecal matter composting
gives the fecal matter time to break down some of the powerful nutrients so
that they are of more use to vegetables and plants.




Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter is
effortless, just simply get Gallus gallus domesticus
bedding and then take the bedding and place it in a compost bin. Dampen it with
water thoroughly and then rotate the pile
once every few weeks to get air into the pile. It takes 6-9 months (on average)
for Gallus gallus domesticus fecal matter
to be done properly. The right amount of time it takes for composting Gallus gallus
domesticus fecal matter depends on the
conditions under which it is composted. Once concluded, it will be ready to use
as an organic fertilizer for vegetables and plants.


     It is
highly recommended to clean vegetables grown from fecal matter thoroughly to
avoid illnesses and diseases. It is also advisable for people who are
susceptible to foodborne illnesses such as to avoid eating uncooked/raw vegetables
that were grown from fecal matter.

Should High school senior be able to carry a firearm

       Something you want to do and protect
yourself from dangers isn’t something easy you can do, But it can be easy if
you want to do it unlawful if people want to call it that. Being allowed to
carry a firearm at the age of 18 through 21 they shouldn’t be able to protect
their own safety reasons and people have a right to defend themselves.

         United states such
as the citizens, there are numbers of way that a criminal can grab a gun,
legally or illegally , Being an honest citizen will go through the legal process.
2nd amendment will only make people use the government as a key
power and try to enforce that rule in many way, And saying that they have their
own rights and their safety this law shouldn’t be removed or broken at any time
which I Currently agree because carrying a firearm at the age of 21 is quite a
while. Despite the shootings and killings that has been going around the united
states and young teens getting a hold of a firearm is a big concern, But at the
end of the day how would you know your in safety you cannot be 100% or for sure,
A Citizen that just wants to protect himself/herself will want to defend themselves
for various reason. Imagine if that’s no longer an option and more and more
people will try to get Firearms illegally and the criminals rates will just go
high and high and will just increase and criminals will see that people will be
defenseless and they will try to attack in any possible way, People even think
this guarantee was wrote down with no Constraints, Now they made laws that the
gun ownership have little and limited Aspects. Gun Control is most likely the
public safety’s biggest Flag, This is mostly the main violence inside the united
states they have been facing for many and multiple years and they need a many
ways to prevent all these homicides, murders, killings I’m not saying allowing a
Highschool senior will stop this but it’s just the principle people want to
have their own safety.” Background checks happen when you go to a federally
licensed gun dealer and is a Required process and the Dealer must run your name
through the federal database to check if you have a mentally illness or
Criminal record. “Facing many years, they always to prevent gun violence and
the even record how many deaths and homicides since its happening so much
inside the united states” (Martinez). Personally, the united states and the government
is doing it the right way, Going through process what if a person wanted to
attack and was stressing over something and the only thing to do is kill
themselves young adults do have that mindset But ones that are mature enough to
have a owned weapon should be taking tests and backgrounds daily until they
Receive it , Reading this article it was talking about how 18 years and high
school seniors go to private gun dealers or they can go to one and personally
purchase one unless the dealer gives it to you because mostly under 21 mostly
may be not given based on the dealer if they think your worthy or may give you
one at your own risk , Many states are debating if younger adults should carry

         Gun control is
really becoming a huge topic in the country you can go search up in google and
a lot of topics debating if gun control should not be allowed, Dealers and
states has let People carry firearms and they did go through the federally went
through a very difficult process. The way the system works inside the government
is based on a whole they decide weather its good they determine on the citizens
but not most of the times they just pass the law on the congress or senate and
has to go through a day by day process , Carrying a Firearm at the age of 18
can be somewhat weird to some people but its up to us that government will
listen us citizens , Article I was reading was talking about how private
dealers will not most likely will not sell through ages 18-20 while I was
talking a little bit about it in Page 2 But besides illegal crimes the idea
that young individuals  have a constitutional
right to protect themselves which means to buy weapons and carry them loaded
and concealed in public is really Breathtakingly and irresponsible and to some people
might be afraid and notice something is strange that they’re carrying a firearm.
“A high school senior in most states can go to a Gun show, go line or any other
place that they might find a private seller and lawfully purchase a gun that
they couldn’t otherwise at a gun dealer” (David Chipman)., A Former ATF federal
agent that works with the mayors against illegally guns. If An 18-year-old
brings their legally purchased hand gun that they brought from who knows they
cannot be allowed to bring them in and repair them because they are under 21.


        Seniors shouldn’t
be denied carrying a weapon for myself I would carry a firearm for my own
safety because it’s the only way keeping me safe but maybe not for others but I
Regulate with the government laws and follow all the process and not listen to
the government and buy a weapon from the streets but Carrying a rifle at the
age of 18 or having or personally owning one isn’t illegal in Washington state,
They shouldn’t be able to be carry rifles but not a Handgun.



The problem set is approaches to statutory interpretation by
the judiciary. In theory, parliament is the supreme law-making authority in the
land. However, it is up to judiciary to interpret laws and as such they can
often modify a law beyond what was originally intended, therefore setting a
precedent and arguably ‘making’ a law. Statutory interpretation concerns the
role of judges when trying to apply an Act of Parliament to an actual case.
Language used in statutes can cause problems, for example the word may not be
very clear in the context of the sentence, it could be that the word is
particularly old in light of todays context or it could mean that the
parliament hasn’t foreseen certain situations that may arise in the future because
of new development or new technologies. An example of where the language was
unclear can be seen in the case of Twining v Myers (1982), where court had to
decide whether roller skates amounted to a ‘vehicle’.  It can be a difficult process for the judiciary
of fully understanding what parliament meant to achieve or what they intended.
As a result, there has been a development of there in how words in statutes can
be interpreted.

The literal rule says that the judges must apply the law
literally – using the words in statute in their ordinary signification. Lord Esher
in R v Judge of the City of London Court (1892) said ‘if the words of an act
are clear then you must follow them even if they lead to a manifest absurdity.’
An example case where the literal was used is Whiteley v Chappell (1898). The
facts of the case were that defendant was charged under a statute where it was
an offence to impersonate ‘any person entitled to vote’.  The defendant had pretended to be a person
whose name was on voter’s list, but had died. In applying the literal meaning
of the words in the statute, the defendant couldn’t be found guilty because
dead people, literally speaking, aren’t entitled to vote so the defendant got
away with it even though it was an absurd result.

An advantage of the literal rule is that it prevents
unelected judges from making law, by keeping to the literal rule it means that
the judges don’t enter that dangerous position of moving away from what
parliament intended and creating laws that otherwise would not have exist. The
literal rule also makes the law more certain and easier to understand. However,
not every act is perfectly drafted. For instance, in the Dangerous Dogs Act
1991 there was confusion over the words ‘type’ and ‘breed’. Additionally, not
every act covers every situation. There are new developments in societies that wouldn’t
have been foreseen. Words may have more than one meaning and the act be unclear
as words change overtime. Literal rule can lead to an absurd, unfair or unjust
decision. This can be seen in London & North Eastern Railway Co v Berriman
(1946), where a widow was denied compensation because the Fatal Accidents Act stated
that a lookout man must only be provided ‘for the purposes of relaying or
repairing’ as oppose to oiling.

The golden rule was developed to tackle the absurd, unfair
and unjust situations arising from the application of literal rule. This rule
allows judges a little more leeway, allowing judges to refer to various other
documents around the statute such as the report of Parliamentary commissions to
aid understanding of the statute. There are two approaches to the golden rule –
the narrow application and the wider application. The narrow application of the
golden rule can be seen in the case Alder v George (1964). Official Secrets Act
1920 made it an offence to obstruct Her Majesty’s Forces ‘in the vicinity’ of a
prohibited place. The defendants obstructed HM Forces in a prohibited area but
they argued they were not guilty as literal wording of Act did not apply as ‘in
the vicinity’ means ‘outside but close to it.’ By applying the narrow application,
the court found them guilty to avoid an absurd result, stating it should be
read as ‘in or in the vicinity of’ the prohibited.

The narrow application of the golden rule sometimes didn’t go
far enough in terms of solving a particular problem in a case and making sure
there was a just outcome. This was seen in the case of Re Sigsworth (1935),
where the defendant murdered his mother. As she had no will, he stood to
inherit all of her estate as her next of kin under the Administration of
Justice Act 1925. The court felt that parliament never intended or foreseen a
murderer should benefit from the act of the crime financially so the defendant
did not inherit his mother’s estate as the golden rule was used to avoid a ‘repugnant’
situation. It can be argued that the judges at this point are effectively creating
law as they were writing into the act that a person who has murdered their next
of kin should not inherit.

Golden rule provides an escape route from absurd literal
meanings so it leads to a more just outcome. It also allows the judge to choose
the most sensible meaning of words as judges are given discretion to choose
between the first meaning of the word and the second meaning to enable them to
find the right decision in the case. Additionally, as seen in the case Re Sigsworth
(1935), the golden rule can avoid a repugnant as it would have simply been immoral
for a murderer to benefit financially from killing a relative. However, it is
still rather limited in its use and used rarely as it doesn’t give judges too
much discretion. It is also not possible to predict when the court will use it
so when clients are looking to be advised by their legal counsel, the lawyers
will be unsure of whether a judge will actually apply the golden rule or not.

The mischief rule gives more discretion to judges. It is
derived from the 16th century and enables the judge to figure out what mischief
the statute was intended to address and then to interpret the statute in such a
way so as the tackle the problem that the statute was supposed to tackle. An
example case where the mischief rule was used is the Smith v Hughes (1960),
where six women were charged under the Street Offences Act 1959 in which it was
an offence for a common prostitute to loiter or solicit in a street or public
place for the purpose of prostitution. However, the women were not ‘in a street’
but on the balcony, attracting the attention of passers-by’s. Had the court
applied the literal rule it would have meant that the prostitutes would have
been found not guilty. Therefore, the court applied the mischief rule and
believed the intention of the parliament was to essentially clean up the streets
from common prostitutes.  

An advantage of the mischief rule is that it promotes the
purpose of the law as the judges are looking to see what parliament wanted to
achieve. Once they have identified what parliament intended they can try to
apply it to the gap in the law in the case before them today to produce a just
result. A disadvantage is that since the judges have more discretion there is a
danger that the original intention of the parliament could be misinterpreted.  Additionally, it can lead to uncertainly for
lawyers to advise clients as to which direction the court might take.

The purposive approach gives even more discretion to the
courts, the judges are not simply looking at the gap in the old law like in the
mischief rule but what they believe parliament meant to achieve.  This was seen in the case Regina V Registrar
General, ex parte Smith (1990), the case concerned the interpretation of the
Adoption Act 1976 where an individual when having reach the age of 18 was entitled
to obtain a record of their birth, provided they had undertaken counselling.
The applicant Charles Smith, whilst meeting the criteria set out by parliament,
had been convicted of two murders and was detained in Broadmoor for psychiatric
illness. As a result, he was deemed to a potential threat to his birth mother
should her identity be discovered. The purposive approach allowed the court to
try and deal with a tricky situation, they felt that the purpose of the act surely
was not to have a birth mother at rick so the application was denied.

An advantage of the purposive approach is that it allows
more situations to be covered which leads to justice in many individual cases.
It is useful where new technology or scientific advancement is made as
parliament can’t foresee future developments. Additionally, it gives more
discretion to avoid an absurd situation. However 

Taking of Pelham 123

The story began when then New York Subway Train departed
from Pelham Bay Pak Station at exactly 1:23pm and it was hijack by a man
wearing glasses and has a lot of tattoo who was with the three armored men. The
Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) employee named Garber looked at the
huge monitor where he saw that the train stopped its operation so he called the
train operator of Pelham 123 and asked if anything was wrong. At first there
was no one responding the line but suddenly Garber was answered by the man who
hijacked the train and said that his name is Ryder. Ryder asked Garber to get a
calculator with him demanding money in exchange that he will free the 17 hostages
inside the train. The exact money that he told to Garber was $526,315.079
multiply to 0.19 which is equals 10 million dollar and 1 cent. Ryder asked the
exact time and Garber said that it was 2:13pm so Ryder said that he will be
waiting for the money at exactly 3:13pm and must be in cash. If the money did
not arrive on time then he will kill one passenger every minute which he didn’t
exactly do. The lieutenant of NYPD emergency service unit came to the Rail
Controlling Center and he asked Garber that he will be the one to handle the
negotiation. When the lieutenant called, Ryder got angry and he was asking
where Garber is and that he will be the only one to negotiate with him. Ryder
threatens shoot the train operator when the lieutenant refused to get Garber
back. It was too late when Garber got back to be the one to negotiate again
with Ryder. The train operator was already shot which is a friend of Garber.
The lieutenant learned that Garber was being investigated for an alleged
acceptance of bribery over the contract for new subway vehicles. Ryder learned
about it through the online articles posted when he searched about Garber. He
called again and made Garber confessed by threatening to kill another passenger
who begged Garber to admit it. Garber admitted that he received $35,000 bribe
that he used to pay the college tuition fee of his child. Ryder admired Garber
for admitting it to save the life of the passenger and made the passenger thank
Garber. The mayor now agreed to pay the 10 million dollar in exchange for the
passengers. Unfortunately, the police vehicle which carries the money got
caught into an accident while rushing on the way and failed to reach on time.
Garber and Ryder had a conversation and based on the clues that the NYPD got,
Ryder’s real name is Dennis Ford who was a manager before at a private equity
firm and got imprisoned because of investment fraud. There was an extreme drop
in the market stock due to the hijack and the mayor that Ryder was actually
manipulating the market stock by the use of put options. Ryder demands Garber
that he should deliver the money himself. When Garber gave the ransom money,
Ryder brought him inside and told him to operate the train and move it to the
next station.  Garber managed to escape
from the three hijackers. They got away and Ryder escaped from the Waldorf
Astoria Hotel. Garber managed to catch up with Ryder and cornered him in
Manhattan Bridge pedestrian way. The police was on their way to arrest Ryder
but Ryder told Garber that he would not go back to prison again so he wants
Garber to shoot him instead. Ryder threatens him that he’ll shoot Garber if he
does not shoot Ryder. At first, Garber did not want to shoot him but Ryder gave
him 10 seconds to pull the trigger and when the countdown was done and Ryder
was supposed to shoot him, Garber shot him in defense. Ryder told Garber that
he was his hero. The train comes at halt and the Mayor thanked Garber for
saving the hostages and he assured him that the bribery case against him will
be put down.

The relation of the movie to the economics is the stock
manipulation of Ryder in the stock exchange market. During the film there were
several scenes where you can see that Ryder was checking the news as well as
the stock market exchange. He used to put options to give him the right to sell
an asset at a specific price then it will increase its value as the price of
the asset drops. In the future, if the trading is at $100 and you pay $1 for the right to sell it for at least $95 then the future
will drop to $90 dollar. A person could buy futures for $90 and sell them at a
higher price which is $95 then a profit of at least $4 from each $1 you spend
on puts. Ryder had purchased from the derivative contracts that allows them to
benefit in a leveraged way even when the stock market would drop due to the
news of their hijack. It was said that the bigger the drop of the stock market
is and the quicker it happens after the puts were purchased, then the money of
Ryder and the two other guys he is with will be bigger. It was also
unbelievable how his investment went 150 times higher. The total balance that
Ryder got is exactly $307,057,918.78.

The Effect of the Legal Sale and Distribution of Marijuana on Spanish culture in the Last Decade

This essay hopes to outline
some of the effects that the legalisation of marijuana could have on the
country both socially and economically; as well as look to the future possible
outcomes. The legalisation of marijuana has been a controversial topic all over
the world and as more countries and states begin to relax or completely abolish
legal restrictions on the drug. This controversy
has recently extended to the issue of medical uses of marijuana, namely, smoking of marijuana to relieve various symptoms (Hollister, 2000). Even despite this it is probably the
most widely and commonly used illegal drug in the world. A survey done by the
National Survey on Drug use and Health in 2015 showed that in one month 22.2
million people used the drug.

Since the early 1990’s,
several Spanish associations have experimented with self-cultivation of
marijuana for their members (Decorte, 2011). The legal sale and distribution of
marijuana in Spain could not be possible without the birth of social clubs.
While it was common belief that these clubs existed through some form of legal
loop hole, this isn’t true. It is in fact Spanish constitution that allows the
formation of these clubs. Spain has extremely liberal constitutional privacy
protections. In summary, what these laws state (among other things) is that
what one does is the privacy of one’s home is no one else’s business. These
privacy laws have been tested in the courts and the result has been that if you
want to grow a few plants in your home or other private location, out of view
of the public. then that’s acceptable (Hudson, 2016). Spaniards also have
the Right to Association which means that people with similar interest may form
together and make groups or clubs. This lead to multiple people grouping
together to pay for lots and grow their allotted plants. While this may be constitutionally
okay, if caught the possession and distribution of marijuana was still legal
and hundreds of people have been arrested and fined as a result, in 2006
members of a club were arrested and their crop requisitioned, months later the
judge decided that there was no crime because they removed the criminal sale
aspect cutting profits for those who sell drugs illegally, “it is a consumption modality among addicts in which the
possibility of transmission to third parties is discarded” (Pérez-Lanzac, 2008). In 2008 and
part of 2009 a study was carried out on the capacity of drug user organisations
to influence policy dialogue (Decorte, 2011). They outlined many
difficulties encountered by Spanish cannabis organisations from lack of
political strategy training to social stigma. In the time over the course of
the last decade, with each autonomous community able to set its own laws on
cannabis; consequently, on Friday 30th of June Catalonia passed a
law enabling a network of co-operatives to legally oversee the legal use,
distribution and cultivation of cannabis. Cultivation, supply and consumption
must all take place in private. No forms of advertising are allowed. Membership
is restricted to adults who are already cannabis consumers and potential
members must be sponsored by another member to join. Members must be registered
for 15 days before cannabis can be bought. Clubs must keep a register of
members and limit the amount cultivated for each member to 60 grams a month
maximum for those aged over 21 and 20 grams a month maximum for those aged 18
to 21. These maximums do not apply to therapeutic use (Daly, 2017).
Spain’s cannabis laws have been progressively liberalized to the point where
Spain is now one of the most cannabis – friendly countries in all of Europe.
Despite all this, the ‘restrictions’ stipulating who can buy marijuana, some
cities such as Barcelona now have more than 200 cannabis clubs, are gaining
status as “New Amsterdam” in weed tourism circles Because of the ease of access
and privacy allowed these clubs are becoming a safe place for tourist to smoke
as well. The first thing to remember is that while these clubs have been around
for a while, legalisation in Spain only happened a few months ago so there is
only small amounts of research and evidence available to analyse. To bridge
this gap, analysis of similar countries and states will be used as comparison
and to make guesses towards possible effects it could have in Spain.

The first obvious and blatant
effect is the factor of health, the main method of taking marijuana is smoking
it, the obvious and proven health risk of smoking any material has been proven
without a doubt; therefor the legalisation of a substance in which you are
supposed to smoke could be promoting a health risk. However, while medical
marijuana and cannabinoids have significant health risks as well as many
potential medical benefits (Hill, 2015),
and even so,
with these all the risks there still has not been a single reported death where
the cause has been marijuana overdose. With legalisation comes more
available and wider spread research of the drug, medical marijuana can be taken
in a number of ways; from oral spray, to food and also vape pens, all of which
can be shown to be more healthy way to take marijuana. Data from
more than 40 clinical trials of marijuana and cannabinoids have been published;
beyond the 2 indications for which dronabinol and nabilone are already approved
by the FDA, the strongest evidence exists for the use of marijuana and
cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and
spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (Hill, 2015).
As long as each patients case is evaluated properly by their doctor, there is
no reason that these methods can not only help the patients but are even more
effective in some cases, some patients are able to report switching 3 to 4
medically prescribed pills for one marijuana based treatment. One of the health
considerations that need to be considered is the possible extra strain that the
increase in use could do to the health services themselves. One thing to think
about is the long-term health benefits that come from people feeling they are
able to seek help, it has been seen that addicts are more likely to come
forward and seek rehabilitation when they do not feel they will be judged or
persecuted for their use.  A study in the
United States showed that while it is true, that in cases of residents in
states where marijuana is legal had higher odds of both using marijuana and
marijuana abuse / dependence; marijuana abuse / dependence was in fact not
found to be  more prevalent among the regular
marijuana users in these states, suggesting that the higher risk of abuse or
dependence was simply accounted for by the general higher use in these states (Cerdá, et al., 2012). In Colorado between
2011 and 2013 an increase in the number of emergency room visits that related
to marijuana rose by 57% (Rocky Mountain High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, 2014). This has been
speculated to have been caused by a number of things, the first is the fact
that because it is legal this means for someone to be intoxicated in public or
other situations where it might not be appropriate there are now only social
persecution not legal. Add this to the fact it is even now becoming more
socially tolerable, this causes more frequent and relaxed use of the drug and
may cause more frequent accidents. Second is caused by the allowances for open
experimentation has caused a spike in the strength of the marijuana, causing
inexperienced users to ingest high amounts of THC and seek medical aid.
Considering the other side of this we can now reduce situations in which
dealers add extra dangerous substances to the marijuana, because of more free
sharing of knowledge and regulations now put in place, because it is a legal
substance and therefore under the laws of sale and distribution, users can be
sure that they are buying a safe to consume product. Kristin
Aichinger, Cultivation Manager at Green Man Cannabis, said: “One major
factor is how clean our weed is. Here in Colorado, the fruit and vegetables on
your counter have more pesticides and non-organic chemicals than the weed in
your joint. We have outrageously strict testing regulations here. The weed is
also tested for mould and mildew, and potency levels are a legal requirement on
our packaging” (Cedar, 2016).
The third
is the increase of driving while intoxicated. Marijuana has been proven to have
a negative effect on reaction time, awareness and cognitive capabilities,
therefor it could be theorised that by legalising the substance you will
increase the risk of people being intoxicated while they drive which in turn
increases accidents. In Western countries, cannabinoids are the most frequently
encountered illicit drugs detected in the blood of impaired or injured drivers,
leading to awareness that these substances are detrimental to safe driving (Bondallaz, et al., 2016). Colorado
saw the biggest estimated increase in claim frequency compared with its control
states. After retail marijuana sales began in Colorado, the increase in
collision claim frequency was 14 percent higher than in nearby Nebraska, Utah
and Wyoming. Washington’s estimated increase in claim frequency was 6 percent
higher than in Montana and Idaho, and Oregon’s estimated increase in claim
frequency was 4 percent higher than in Idaho, Montana and Nevada. In spite of
this it was also found that Three years after recreational marijuana legalisation,
changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were
not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational
marijuana legalisation (Aydelotte, et al., 2017). When looking at the
total outcomes though, it is important to look at the whole picture,
governments spend massive amounts of money each year prosecuting and housing
offenders with only convictions relating to marijuana. Medical marijuana is
associated with significant drops in violent crime. Looking at crime data from
11 states in the west, seven of which had medical marijuana laws before 2009,
they see “no evidence of significant, negative spill over effects from MMLs on
crime.” Instead, they suspect a fall in the involvement of criminal
organizations after marijuana is legalized for medical use and conclude, “MMLs
likely produce net benefits for society.” (Trilling, 2016). In Uruguay they
take the health risk very seriously and have much stricter rules on who, when
and why some one can purchase marijuana, the main aim of the implementation in
Uruguay was to take money out of the illicit drug market but they do not want
to increase use or increase risk of addiction. the Uruguayan government has
recognised, a balance needs to be struck when it comes to the restrictiveness
of its regulations. Too restrictive (with prices too high, limited availability
etc.), and people are likely to carry on purchasing cannabis from the illicit market;
not restrictive enough (with prices too low, over-availability etc.), and
people are likely to consume more cannabis or start using the drug for the
first time (Transform, 2014).

leads to the next largest factor effected by the legalisation of cannabis which
is crime. As stated earlier some judges, especially in Spain, believe that
self-cultivation and consumption is not a crime because it takes money out of
the hands of real criminals. It also reduces the chance that hard drug dealers
will be able to take advantage of a marijuana users addiction, to either make
money off them or force them to commit other crimes as payment. Marijuana related
arrests in Colorado fell from 12,894 in 2012, when voters approved legalisation,
to 7,004 in 2014, the first year of legal recreational sales—a 46
percent decrease. Marijuana related charges filed in Colorado courts fell
81 percent between 2012 and 2015, from 10,340 to 1,954. Those dramatic changes
saved thousands of people from unjust punishment and channelled law enforcement
resources toward activities with a bigger public safety payoff (Sullum, 2016). Despite many
peoples worry that the legalisation of marijuana would drastically increase crime
rates when legalisation first happened in America, there have been studies that
show the opposite in certain areas. To be sure, medical marijuana laws were not found to have a crime
exacerbating effect on any of the seven crime types. On the contrary, our
findings indicated that MML precedes a reduction in homicide and assault. It
conforms to the longstanding notion that marijuana legalisation may lead to a
reduction in alcohol use due to individuals substituting marijuana for alcohol.
Given the relationship between alcohol and violent crime, it may turn out that
substituting marijuana for alcohol leads to minor reductions in violent crimes
that can be detected at the state level (Morris, et al.,
A criminal aspect that could occur, both from the issues caused between state
and country or federal laws; and the restrictions used in countries such as
Holland. Perhaps the most justifiable concern with the coffee shop system is
the ‘backdoor problem’, whereby sales of cannabis are tolerated (the drug can
leave the coffee shops via the front door), but production and cultivation
(i.e. the supply chain that leads up to the back door of the coffee shops)
remain prohibited. This has led to concerns about the links between the coffee
shops and organised crime. However, if there is any truth in the claims about
such links, it is almost entirely because of the legal paradox in which
supplying cannabis to the coffee shops is a criminal act, while selling cannabis
via the shops is (effectively) not (Rolles, 2014). They have a similar problem in the
United States because while states have legalized it, it is still a federal
crime and even without this confusing state of affairs, it can become a problem
in situations where a truck might leave and arrive with perfectly legal cargo,
but they have to drive through states where they can be stopped and searched
and ultimately arrested. This leads official companies to be hesitant to take
marijuana business, leaving these companies little choice but to make the run
themselves or hirer someone using an illegal method of smuggling the shipment
from A to B (The Legend of 420, 2017). These situations
arise because of poor preparation and implementation by these countries
governments, in some states there have been reports of criminals using the
legal areas as “safe havens” to grow and cultivate their crops, then smuggling
the product into a state where it is illegal and charging inflated prices in
these areas. Illegal drug traffickers are growing weed among the state’s
sanctioned pot warehouses and farms, then covertly shipping it elsewhere and
pocketing millions of dollars from the sale, according to law enforcement
officials and court records consulted by The Associated Press (Associated Press, 2016). It has allowed for
loopholes that even still can be seen as punishing to those who wish to legally
use marijuana in peace and the criminals who profit from a flawed system.

A factor heavily talked about
by those opposed to the legalisation of marijuana is the social effects. While
side effects can vary from strain to strain some are more common than others, side
effects such as paranoia, loss of cognitive ability and slower mental reaction
can make social situations difficult especially between someone who is
intoxicated and someone who is not. A study in Massachusetts looked at social
interactions of adult males who were given free access to marijuana. Data
relevant to social interaction and recreational preferences were collected at
hourly intervals. Moderate users consumed an average of 2.6 cigarettes per day
and showed both acute and persistent (21-day) decrements in social interaction.
Heavy users consumed 5.7 cigarettes per day but indicated fewer social
reactions. The results suggested that marijuana inhibits social interaction in
moderate users but behavioural tolerance in heavy users may mitigate this effect
(Babor, et al., 2009). While this study
may demonstrate that legalisation of recreational marijuana might not have
significant social effects on those users who are already considered heavy user
and developed some behavioural tolerance, however new users to moderate users
may be at higher risk of feeling these social effects. Other issues that can
occur from the side effects such as lack of cognitive ability and memory loss
can have highly damaging consequences for people in education and a lack of
motivation and aspirations can cause people to leave or never pursue education.
This could have a knock-on effect that could come to fruition decades down the
line. A study into the effect of THC on learning in adolescent and adult rats
found that
acute treatment with THC inhibited both spatial and non-spatial learning in the
water maze more powerfully in male adolescent rats than in male adults.
However, chronic THC treatment, either during adolescence or adulthood, had no
effect on subsequent learning four weeks after the termination of THC exposure (Cha, et al., 2006). A
final factor to consider is that, with the legal sale and distribution of
marijuana comes the ability to tax the product. Which in turn gives money back
to the government, In Colorado, the state saw a 57.2% increase in the total
marijuana taxes collected from FY 2015-16 to FY 2016-17 year-to-date as of
January. The retail sales tax alone increased 51.4% for the same period. The
state collected $119 million in taxes as of January for its year-to-date fiscal
year. Compare this to only $38 million collected on alcohol of at least 11
months in 2016. The money is being put to good use by the state. For example,
Colorado was able to put $16 million towards Affordable Housing Grants and
Loans in 2016 from cannabis tax collections (Borchardt, 2017). In California they have used the money
gained from the tax to; give extra training police and high way patrol, giving
money to the communities most affected by the war on drugs and youth drug
prevention and education. Massachusetts plans to put the money back into
schools, veteran services and law enforcement and treatment methods and Nevada
will bolster its schools and public education (Robinson, 2016).

With all this in mind the
Catalonian government need to be careful and take a look at the systems they
already have in place to ensure they can prevent the negative effects and
enhance the positive, for example, to help prevent people driving while
intoxicated they need to be properly educated as they are with alcohol and
other legal drugs. Increased education will also decrease the chance of
emergency room visits, proper labelling of the products to show THC content
will also aid in this endeavour. Even when taking prescription medication, you
are sometimes advised what you can and can not do while under the effects. We find
considerable international evidence that education is strongly linked to health
and to determinants of health such as health behaviours, risky contexts and preventative
service use (Feinstein, et al., 2006). This also links to
the next preventative which is the proper tools and training given to their
police force to be able to detect and have a strict guideline as to how to act
in given situations. This flows straight into the next measure, that it has
been made clear is an issue in all countries that currently have relaxed to no
laws restricting marijuana, which is how to control the issues caused by the
system of automated communities. In situations like the one Spain is in now
where one of its seventeen communities have legalised marijuana, even ignoring
all of the history of these clubs throughout Spain, with the rapid growth in
the number of these clubs in Catalonia since legalisation, it would be naïve to
think that none of these clubs is funded or run by illegal organisations. It is
there for not that far of a jump to consider the possibility that these clubs
may be illegally exporting their product to countries or states where marijuana
isn’t legal. They need to closely consider the way they implement and manage
this to ensure law abiding users are the ones that benefit not the criminals.
This goes from state to state all the way down to social clubs. From looking at
America alone it is clear to see that both the government and the people can
benefit from the tax generated from the legal distribution of marijuana. As
long as the Catalonian and Spanish governments are able to bring balanced and
fair tax rates and correctly introduce them to the already thriving community
of smokers in Spain, there is no end to the improvements that can be made to
multiple sectors of the Spanish economy.

In conclusion, there is no definitive answer to
whether the legalisation of marijuana is going to be more negative or more
positive effect. It is for certain thought that as more and more states and
countries begin to relax or abolish their restrictions and laws against
marijuana, governments all over the world can no longer ignore this growing
issue and they can not continue to fight this change. In Spain there seems to
be a much longer living knowledge and acceptance for those who safely and
privately consume marijuana, because of this there may be a much quicker
progression from state to state. The main benefit of legalisation in all states
and countries where it appears seems to be those that help the people already
using and already addicted. As long as the Catalonian government keep focus on
research, improving medical and education services they can ensure the safe use
of marijuana can be achieved for their citizens. Looking forward to the future
the Spanish government must prepare for the eventuality that other states may
follow Catalonia’s lead, if properly anticipated they can make the proper
preparations to ensure smooth transition; and in the long run legalisation can
help lower organised crime, increase knowledge and be used to improve the life
and medical care.  

After seeing the influences of the Church and Soviet Regime on Polish
society, it could not be overly difficult to estimate how the Polish politics
function for lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people or in general the
people who are not fitting into Church’s definition of a good Catholic.
Paradowski (2009) states that the first contemporary constitutions started to
emerge and have nowadays meaning of constitutions in the eighteenth century and
the first constitution of Poland has been written by Enlightenment circles,
however, extremely conservative and religious Catholic groups from the Catholic
Church have succeeded to be part of the foundation of the Polish constitution
in 1791. Thus, the first constitution of Poland has been constructed by the
name of the God and around the traditional Christian values and norms. The
influence of the Catholic Church could be found even the latest Constitution of
the Republic of Poland which is established on the second of April 1997 and the
Article 18 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland states; “Marriage,
being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood, and
parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of
Poland” (sejm.gov.pl 2017). In other words, the Church has played particularly
a strong role in creating the first modern Polish Constitution and seemingly
continued its power over the Polish public and politics over the centuries and
all these constitutions were combine products of the main Polish Political
thoughts, traditions, and needs of the Republic of Poland in general (Wagner,

The new constitution of the Republic of Poland is one of the seven
member states of the European Union to prohibit gay marriage as well as does
not allow civil partnership between homosexual partners (Polish president rules
out gay marriage, 2017), which has been clearly defined in the Article 18 of
the Constitution of Poland saying that marriage could only happen between a man
and a woman. The unaccepting atmosphere towards to LGBT individuals could also
be seen on the political scene of the Republic of Poland as well as society
(Jartys, 2015). This unaccepting and no welcome political approach could be
seen with numerous anti-homosexual statements which have been made by several
politicians. For instance; even though the Article 32 of the Constitution of
the Republic of Poland ensure that “No one shall be discriminated against in
political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever” (sejm.gov.pl
2017), when negotiations on Poland’s accession to the European Union, a woman
presenter, Ewa Haczyk has given this speech;


 “No citizen of the Union may be discriminated
against because of sexual orientation, religious beliefs, etc. That’s one
thing. Homosexuals are another matter, and this is regulated by national
legislation. Their position within the Polish society will, therefore, depend
on our legislators. So, no-one is going to force it upon us how we should treat
them” (Jartys, 2015 p:11).


This hateful statement from a spokeswoman from the government of the
Republic of Poland has shown that political parties of the Republic of Poland
have seen homosexuality as an alien mechanism, as well as Polish society, which
is not considered with Polish nationality but a western value. In addition to
that it is not genuinely surprising that the ruling party of the Republic of
Poland which is Law and Justice Party that has come into power in 2015 by
supporting traditional Polish values, Polish identity, classic family of Poland
that is considered a union between a man and a woman, as well as Catholic
traditions (Polish president rules out gay marriage, 2017).

Since politicians of the
Republic of Poland seen homosexual rights as a national issue and no other
external power, including the European Union, could force Poland to do specific
improvements on LGBT rights rather than national legislators of Poland itself
have made impossible to legalize gay marriage or civil partnership without changing
the present Constitution of the Republic of Poland (Downing & Gillett,
2011). However, there have been two political attempts to change the
Constitution of Poland to create an equal atmosphere between citizens of Poland
no matter what their sexual orientations are. The first attempt has been made
in 2002 and it was a proposal of same-sex marriage which has been proposed by
both homosexual and heterosexual couples, and the second one was a civil
partnership proposal which is submitted in 2003 in order to have an alternative
to gay marriage, yet, both of them have faced with countless intolerant
comments and criticisms from conservative parties, politicians as well as
Catholic Church authorities (Downing & Gillett, 2011). Polish political
approach to LGBT rights and individuals reflects fanatic and nationalist style
which is the result of seeing LGBT community as an alien mechanism and also not
accepting those identities with the identity of Polish because of the fact that
Polish national identity based on patriotism and the Catholic religion
(Chojnicka, 2015).


Important component analysis
transforms a hard and fast of information acquired from in all likelihood
correlated variables into a set of values of uncorrelated variables referred to
as major components. The number of additives may be much less than or identical
to the range of unique variables. the first most important element has the very
best feasible variance, and every of the succeeding component has the highest
possible variance beneath the limit that it has to be orthogonal to the
preceding factor. We want to locate the main components, in this example
eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of facial photographs. the primary
element we need to do is to form a education information set. second image Ii
may be represented as a 1D vector by concatenating rows. photo is converted
right into a vector of length N = mn.

To make sure that the primary
fundamental issue describes the course of most variance, it is important to
center the matrix. First we decide the vector of mean values ?, and then
subtract that vector from every photo vector.

? = ?x , (1)

 ?i i = ? x ? . (2)

Averaged vectors are organized to
form a brand new training matrix (length N×M); 1 2 (, , , ) A = ?? ? … M . Face
reputation the usage of Eigenface technique 123 the subsequent step is to
calculate the covariance matrix C, and locate its eigenvectors ei and
eigenvalues ?i:

C AA = = ?? ? , (3)

 Ce e i ii = ? . (four)

Covariance matrix C has dimensions
N×N. From that we get N egeinvalues and eigenvectors. For an picture length of
128×128, we’d must calculate the matrix of dimensions sixteen.384×16.384 and
find 16.384 eigenvectors. It isn’t very effective since we do no longer need
most of these vectors. Rank of covariance matrix is limited via the wide
variety of pix in learning set — if we’ve M snap shots, we can have M–1
eigenvectors corresponding to non-0 eigenvalues. one of the theorems in linear
algebra states that the eigenvectors ei and eigenvalues ?i can be obtained by
finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues of matrix C1 = AT A (dimensions M×M). If
?i and ?i are eigenvectors and eigenvalues of matrix AT A, then:

A A? ? i ii = ? . (five)
Multiplying each aspects of equation (five) with A from the left, we get: T AA
A?i ii = A? ? , () () T AA A?i ii = ? A? , () () C A?i ii = ? A? . (6)
comparing equations (4) and (6) we are able to conclude that the primary M–1
eigenvectors ei and eigenvalues ?i of matrix C are given by using A?i and ?i,
respectively. Eigenvector associated with the very best eigenvalue displays the
best variance, and the only related to the bottom eigenvalue, the smallest
variance. Eigenvalues lower exponentially so that about ninety% of the total
variance is contained in the first five% to 10% eigenvectors. consequently, the
vectors must be looked after by eigenvalues in order that the first vector
corresponds to the very best eigenvalue. these vectors are then normalized.
They form the new matrix E in order that every vector ei is a column vector.
the size of this matrix are N×D, where D represents the desired quantity of
eigenvectors. it’s miles used for projection of records matrix A and
calculatation of yi vectors of matrix

the dimensions of the matrix C is
N*N. M pics are used to shape C. In practice, the size of C is N*M. however,
because the rank of A is M, simplest M out of N eigenvectors are nonzero. The
eigenvalues of the covariance matrix is calculated. The eigenfaces are created
via the usage of the wide variety of schooling pictures minus quantity of
lessons (overall wide variety of human beings) of eigenvectors. the selected
set of eigenvectors are accelerated by way of the A matrix to create a
discounted eigenface subspace. The eigenvectors of smaller eigenvalues
correspond to smaller variations inside the covariance matrix. The start
examine training set of NxN pix resize picture dimensions to N2 x1 select
training set of N2 xM dimensions, M: wide variety of sample pix find common
face, subtract from the faces inside the schooling set, create matrix A
calculate covariance matrix: AA’ calculate eigenvectors of the covariance
matrix calculate eigenfaces create decreased eigenface space calculate
eigenface of image in query calculate Euclidian distances among the picture and
the eigenfaces find the minimal Euclidian distance output: picture with the
minimum Euclidian distance or image unrecognizable Müge Çar?kç? and Figen Özen
/ Procedia era 1 ( 2012 ) 118 – 123 121 discriminating features of the face are
retained. The range of eigenvectors rely upon the accuracy with which the
database is described and it may be optimized. To decide the identification of
an image, the eigencoefficients are in comparison with the eigencoefficients
inside the database. The eigenface of the picture in question is fashioned. The
Euclidian distances between the eigenface of the picture and the eigenfaces
saved formerly are calculated. The man or woman in question is recognized as
the one whose Euclidian distance is minimal below a threshold value in the
eigenface database. If all of the calculated Euclidian distances are large than
the edge, then the photo is unrecognizable. The reasons for deciding on the
eigenfaces method for face recognition are: x Its independence from the facial
geometry, x The simplicity of realization, x opportunity of actual-time
attention even with out special hardware, x the benefit and velocity of
popularity with recognize to the other techniques, x The higher achievement
rate in assessment to other methods. The venture of the eigenfaces face
recognition method is the computation time. If the database is large, it can
take a while to retrieve the identity of the person under question. 3.
Simulation outcomes with Eigenfaces technique The database used on this work
includes 20 photographs of 152 human beings. a total of 3040 pics are used. The
average face is calculated the usage of the training set. In Fig 2 some pix of
the education set are shown.

Accounting and finance

It was when I earned my first pound at the age of ten washing my mother’s car that I became interested in the power of money. Over time it became clear to me that the people who understand the monetary and banking system are capable of understanding the decisions made by governments and the future of society. I want to be one of those people.

To broaden my knowledge of different areas of finance, I have read a number of different books on the subject – from “How the City of London Works” to “Rich Dad Poor Dad”. I am also a regular reader of the Economist magazine. I believe that reading such books and magazines has given me insight into topics not covered at school, for example how Japanese management in Chinese factories caused unrest among the workforce due to the Chinese workers’ dislike of the Japanese management style, and how this affected the share price of companies such as Honda. Reading about such things has made me realise how the subject of Finance and the economy affects everybody’s lives, and has strengthened my desire to further study the subject. The A-level subjects I am studying give me a firm foundation for studying Finance at University. Business Studies at A-level has greatly improved my analytical and writing skills. I have particularly enjoyed the part of the course which concerns how a firm selects financial strategies and how managers choose which aspect of a firm needs the most investment. German has improved my communication skills and self-confidence and has also made me more appreciative and open to other cultures. Alongside the logical method of thinking that I have developed from Mathematics at A-level, I believe that I am well prepared to take on a degree course in Finance at University.

My part-time job as a receptionist at a sports and leisure club has given me some insight into the demands of working life. Having worked there since May, I now feel I am an able employee and because of the nature of the job. I have learned how to communicate with colleagues, my employer and of course, customers. I often have to work alone so I have learned to use my own initiative and how to be independent – skills which are of paramount importance if I want to work in the financial industry.

Since the age of eleven, a hobby and a major interest of mine is Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. This year I won the Welsh Open under 18 absolute division and in 2010 I won a silver medal in the under 18 lightweight division in the European Championships. My previous successes include being the team captain for the Indonesian National Children’s team, where we won the Pan Asian team Championships, beating The Philippines in the final. Balancing my academic life with the rigours of playing a sport at such a level has been very challenging at times. The weeks and months leading up to a major competition are usually pretty stressful, but, as I have now been through the experience many times, I have learned how to deal with immense pressure – and how to enjoy the success which comes afterwards! In addition to this, I have learned about commitment and dedication as well as honour and how to handle a major loss, and also how to remain humble in victory. The things I have learned from Jiu-Jitsu will help me throughout my life; not only during University, but during my career and long afterwards.

I am taking a gap year so I can earn some money in order to travel and to pay for some of the costs of University. I intend to keep my job as a receptionist and also to take on some teaching at the sports and leisure club and, when I have enough money, I am planning to travel around Europe and South America. I believe this experience will be worthwhile as I will come to University with greater maturity after experiencing other cultures.

A possible career option is to do something involved in banking or investments – I certainly hope I will never have to wash another car again!


In Greek mythology, Antaeus is a giant who has formidable strength and remains invincible so long as he stays in contact with the ground. However, he instantly dies when the hero Hercules crushes him in a bearhug in midair. This legendary defeat offers an essential truth: it is only through interaction with the natural world that an individual can realize their full potential. In Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury presents a society in which its citizens fool themselves into an illusion of happiness to conceal their discontent in life. Through the dystopian setting, the novel shows the detrimental effects of a society estranged from nature. Furthermore, Bradbury depicts the importance of the natural world in restoring an individual’s ability to embrace life. Through its various settings, Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury reveals that for people to achieve true happiness and preserve their humanity, they must respect and live in harmony with the natural world. In the dystopian setting of a technologically-controlled society disconnected from nature, Bradbury presents the unsatisfied lives of its citizens. The society in Fahrenheit 451 restricts and banishes nature, disrupting the character’s ability to experience happiness. In protagonist Guy Montag’s house, the windows are “tightly shut” (Bradbury 9), restricting the moonlight from coming in so that the room remains in complete darkness. It is in this dark room that Montag realizes the grim truth: “Darkness. He was not happy” (9). In this society, a house is not a comfortable place for an individual to feel safe and relaxed; it is a place that represents their suppressed dissatisfaction with life. In the domestic environment, the absence of moonlight reveals an absence of warmth between family. With the lack of nature in society, technology further restricts freedom to self-expression, and citizens are forced to conform to the government’s laws. While most citizens watch television, smash windows, or race cars, Clarisse McClellan, Montag’s neighbour, spends her time watching the sunrise (5), tasting rain (19), and smelling old leaves (26). Unlike the other citizens who conform through suppressing their natural instincts by engaging in mindless distractions, Clarisse, who “[likes] to smell things and look at things” (5), shows her individuality through using her innate senses to connect with the natural world around her. Consequently, she disappears and is considered “‘better off dead’” (58) as her character reveals the happiness caused by attaining the freedom to self-expression through nature. On the contrary, the dystopian society is characterized by destruction and violence. Influenced by the environment they live in—a society that burns books and murders their citizens for being “queer” (58)—the citizens spend their lives in a dehumanized state. In one of their meetings, Clarisse tells Montag about the violent behaviour prevalent in their city: do you know, we never ask questions, or at least most don’t; they just run the answers at you, bing, bing, bing, and us sitting there for four more hours of film-teacher. That’s not social to me at all. It’s a lot of funnels and a lot of water poured down the spout and out the bottom, and them telling us it’s wine when it’s not. They run us so ragged by the end of the day we can’t do anything but go to bed or head for a Fun Park to bully people around, break windowpanes in the Window Smasher place or wreck cars in the Car Wrecker place with the big steel ball. Or go out in the cars and race on the streets, trying to see how close you can get to lampposts, playing ‘chicken’ and ‘knock hubcaps.’ I haven’t any friends. That’s supposed to prove I’m abnormal. But everyone I know is either shouting or dancing around like wild or beating up one another. Do you notice how people hurt each other nowadays? (27).As the insightful thoughts of Clarisse, who “rarely [watches] the parlor walls or [goes] to races or Fun Parks” (7) reveal, nature can be a source of comfort from the overwhelming stress of daily life. However, in this dystopian society that threatens nonconformity with death, the citizens engage in violence and destruction to cope with their suppressed instincts and their unsatisfied lives. With the absence of the natural world, society tries to replace the emptiness with its technological inventions. Instead of the sounds of “distant animals and insects and trees” (135), the television parlor walls and radios produce a constant “electronic ocean of sound” (10); and instead of the licorice scent of weeds (138), the smell of kerosene is worn as a perfume because it never truly goes away (4). Among the numerous inventions, such as the Mechanical Hound or the Seashell radios, the Snake is a machine specifically built for the myriad of suicide cases. When Mildred, Montag’s wife, overdoses on sleeping pills, the Snake revives her by “[drinking] up the green matter that flowed to the top in a slow boil.…and [pumping] all the blood from the body and [replacing] it with fresh blood and serum” (12). Unlike a real snake that injects venom into its victims’ blood, this artificial Snake drains its victims dry. In this scene, technology is symbolically shown to cause the dehumanized states as it physically strips them of their blood, an essential element of their life. Furthermore, Bradbury utilizes this setting to convey the destruction that fire causes upon a society disconnected from nature. Fire is the sole element of nature that is not restricted; instead, it is exploited. In the city, it is primarily used for destruction and entertainment. When a woman burns her house after being arrested for owning books, the sight of the fire in the dark night draws people out of their houses to watch this show. As the citizens form crowds around the fire, not to protest the damage of the house and loss of human life, but to enjoy the show, their inability to feel sadness over their neighbours’ deaths reveal their distorted behaviours. By developing fire solely as a symbol of destruction in the dystopian setting, Bradbury reflects the unrestricted chaos that occurs in a society estranged from the natural world. Illustrating the unhappy, dehumanized, and desensitized states of the citizens forced to conform to the government’s laws, Bradbury warns against the censorship of nature and overdependence on technology in society.  In contrast to the dystopian setting, Montag’s journey to rediscover happiness and what it means to be alive is shown through his initial encounters with Clarisse McClellan and his further interactions with the natural world. In such a society where the citizens are pressured to conform through violence, Clarisse’s character reveal the crucial influence nature has in preserving a character’s humanity. Unlike the rest of her peers who smash windows and wreck cars, she “[is] there somewhere in the world.…shaking a walnut tree, [or] sitting on the lawn knitting a blue sweater” (25). Finding solace through interacting with nature, she does not live in a dehumanized state like her troubled neighbours, such as Montag himself, who forgot how to be curious and enthusiastic about all the world has to offer. When he encounters Clarisse, Montag discovers his dissatisfaction and embarks on a journey to find happiness. After their first meeting, he realizes that he is unhappy: “He wore his unhappiness like a mask and the girl had run off across the lawn with the mask and there was no way of going to knock on her door to ask for it back” (9). Clarisse continues to spark a change in Montag when she gets him to taste the rain (19) and smell old leaves (26). As a result of these meetings, Montag changes irrevocably. Realizing his unhappiness, he cannot return to his previous state but is forced to confront the world he lives in through using his previously suppressed senses to interact with the natural environment. Restoring his connection with nature, Montag settles his conflicted state and finally attains peace. Unlike the dystopian “unreality” (133) that makes everything superficial, the wilderness is a calming presence: “The river was very real; it held him comfortably and gave him time at last, the leisure, to consider this month, this year, and a lifetime of years. He listened to his heart slow. His thoughts stopped rushing with blood” (134). With the constant hum of the television and radio, Montag cannot find the silence needed to breathe and calm his rushing thoughts. However, when he immerses himself in the soothing flow of the river, he is able to restore his humanity in the peace of nature. Through experiencing similar incidents in the different setting, Montag’s growth in his journey to rediscover life is shown. As opposed to realizing his own unhappiness when he bumps his foot in the dark room, Montag comes to a different conclusion when he stumbles on the abandoned railroad track in the wilderness: “He was not empty. There was more than enough here to fill him. There would always be more than enough” (138). Albeit the same action, it is the natural world, with its “lakes of smelling and feeling and touching” (138) that fulfills Montag’s innate desire to use his senses and be human again. Furthermore, Bradbury utilizes this setting to present fire as an essential force in the cycle of life. In the wilderness, Montag, a previous fireman, encounters a group of people crowding over a fire and discovers a new meaning for it: “That small motion, the white and red color, a strange fire because it meant a different thing to him. It was not burning, it was warming” (139). Fire, primarily used to cause destruction and provide entertainment in the dystopian setting, is shown to be essential in the wilderness as it provides the warmth needed to sustain life. Through presenting the necessities of fire, Bradbury reveals that nature is essential to maintaining the cycle of life. Nature, with rivers and forests, provides the peace and warmth needed for Montag to attain true happiness and preserve his humanity. In Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury utilizes its various settings to present a notion that maintaining a peaceful connection with nature is essential to attaining true happiness and preserving the humanity of a person. The novel’s dystopian setting, a city disconnected from the natural world, reveals that citizens live in a desensitized and dehumanized state by engaging in mindless distractions and destructive pursuits. Furthermore, it is only through restoring their connection with the natural world that a person can break this illusion of happiness and preserve their humanity. In a world that is slowly becoming dependent on technology, it is crucial to prevent this dystopian future that Bradbury warns against from becoming a reality. From the warmth of the sun to the calming river currents, nature provides a source of comfort and silence in a society that can be overwhelming and stressful at times. Like the legend of Hercules and Antaeus, a person’s real strength and abilities lie in their interaction with nature. It is only through forging a connection with the natural world that an individual can begin to move forward in preserving their humanity and rediscovering the meaning of being alive, ultimately attaining true, substantial happiness. 


Authentication is one of essential components in security
model which can be done in three ways (Rouse, 2017).
First, knowledge factors based on something user must know. This includes
username, IDs, password and PINs. Second, possession factors based on something
user must have such as one-time password tokens (OTP) for both soft and hard
token. Third, is based on inherence factors, something what user is or does.
This includes biometrics such as fingerprints scans, facial recognition and
iris scans.

The use of mobile devices such as smart phones has evolved very
quickly over the recent years and they become necessity for every individual. Smart
phones support Internet services where individuals can access any applications
via their smart phones. A self-service banking option called Mobile banking application
(M-Banking) has been offered by the financial institution for their customers’
convenient. Clients can make any financial services and transactions through
the M-Banking applications with their smart phone as long as they have network
connectivity, anywhere and anytime.

From the first stage of the questionnaire study (refer Appendix A) distributed online and refer result (Appendix B),
majority of the mobile users in Brunei Darussalam use M-Banking with their
smartphone. Most common authentication
mechanisms used in financial institutes in Brunei Darussalam are by using
number, alphanumeric, OTP (hard-token), OTP (SMS) and subset of digit password.
But these authentication methods may prone to dictionary attack and brute force


Most authentication scheme of
M-Banking has the same login method using PIN authentication such as password
with the online banking or ATM password. Thus, the password is predictable and
vulnerable to guessing. Furthermore, online bank password scheme usually use a
6-digits number. The possible combinations to crack the 6-digits password is 1
000 000 combination (Password Depot, 2017).

To address this issue,
recently many bank adopted OTP (hardware token) as part of multi-factor
authentication. Despite the fact that this method provides a fairly high level
of security, many systems have not taken into consideration the need for a secure
alternative login method whenever the hardware token is unavailable.