Yeee

I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious.” Albert Einstein quoted. Roberta Bondar had her own passion and curiosity and that led her to success. Roberta Lynn Bondar was born on December 4, 1945 in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, where she was raised. Bondar was also the first Canadian woman in space. Not only that, but she was a physician, educator, and photographer. Her family played a large role in her life.    Bondar’s passion and curiosity became visible when she was very young and was cultivated by her family the whole way through. Bondar completed elementary and secondary schooling in her birthplace. She graduated from Sir James Dunn Collegiate and Vocational School. Her father was an office manager at the Sault Ste. Marie Public Utilities Commission, while her mother taught business and commerce. She and her sister, Barbara, were encouraged to join Girl Guides, YMCA, and many more. As a young girl, she was fascinated with science, and her father converted the basement into a laboratory for that very reason. In high school, she participated in a science fair, which led to her having a job in what is now the Great Lakes Forestry Centre, where she studied the spruce budworm. Bondar continued her studies and in 1968, she received the Bachelor of Science in Zoology and Agriculture from the University of Guelph. Bondar was interested in neurology and for that reason, earned a Doctorate Degree in Neurology from the University of Toronto in 1974 and a Doctor of Medicine Degree from McMaster University in 1977. The accomplishments made in her early years and the time after are both numerous.   The extensive education Dr. Bondar received led her to many more accomplishments in life. Dr. Bondar was named assistant professor of medicine (neurology) in McMaster University from 1982-84. In 1985, she was named chairperson of Canadian Life Sciences Subcommittee for Space Station, as well. Dr. Bondar once served as a member of the Ontario Premier’s Council on Science and Technology as a civil aviation medical examiner. In 1990, seven years after the selection for the Canadian space program, (1983) she was designated as prime payload specialist for the very first International Microgravity Laboratory, (IML-1) while two years later, she was in space. Dr. Bondar flew on the American space shuttle Discovery on the mission STS-42, from January 22-30, 1992. During her eight day mission, Dr. Bondar conducted experiments that specifically focused on how the human body reacts to the feeling of weightlessness, to allow future astronauts to be in space for a larger period of time. She left the Canadian Space Agency in September of 1992 to pursue her research. Bondar was an avid photographer who studied nature photography in the Brooks Institute in California. Bondar was also instructed to take photos of the Earth on her mission. Her experience in space was published in 1994 as Touching the Earth. She has had several exhibitions of her photographs and have published three other books. In 2003, her achievements were acknowledged by Trent University as her appointment as chancellor. She was chancellor for two terms until 2009. As you may know, this large amount of achievements do not come with ease.   Bondar has faced numerous obstacles, but a large challenge she has overtaken was that she was born as a woman. Many people have not given her the same opportunities as others and have not been too encouraging throughout her career. “The best revenge is success” Bondar quoted. Her advice and how she conquered these obstacles is to surround oneself with support, from both men and women, as it is difficult to get through life alone, without interacting with one another. Because of how well she overtook these obstacles, she has been looked up to for years.   Tackling numerous obstacles and receiving achievements simultaneously is a feat, making Bondar an inspiration to many. Her extensive and deep education can let anyone know that they can never educate themselves too much. The experiments in space that she conducted were for other astronauts as the research gained from those experiments helped other astronauts. Bondar is very helpful and selfless, but at the same time could save herself from obstacles that could ruin her. She could teach many how to lead themselves to success.   Roberta Bondar has taught us many things with her kind personality. One of which is that anything is possible if you can be interested enough. Her own deep education inspires many to be educated as much as possible. Roberta Bondar is an amazing person. Bondar’s many honours include her appointment to the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, more than twenty-two honorary degrees and an induction to the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Roberta Bondar has done many things to encourage and cultivate young minds to do something great just by ed

The United States of America has the largest melting pot of cultures from all over the world. In our every day we see different people, although, some people share the same background or have common likes or hopes. But the same people deviated to be a peaceful group and a group with hate, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination agree with their hate to one religion. There are many ways to stop the hate and share the peace around the world, we all can fight the hate. By the end you will learn how Muslim people are bullied in their everyday lives. Also how do people get to hate another group by watching TV or hear the news. The president of the U.S. Donald Trump has repeatedly described “radical Islamic terrorism” as one the most significant threat to the country. A new database compiled by the Investigative Fund at The Nation Institute examines that claim by looking back over a nine-year period, from 2008 through 2016. Recently, Donald trump has issued an executive order banning people from seven Muslim countries from entering the United States. The seven effective countries are Sudan, Iran, Libya, Yemen, Somalia, Syria, and Iraq which where am I from. As we are talking about Refugees are terrorist there is an example of how America identify refugees according to the article from VOX the author Jennifer Williams said “Since Trump took office, more Americans have been killed by white American men with no connection to Islam than by Muslim terrorists or foreigners” many American lives have been lost during the Presidency of Trump and there is no evidence that Muslims are terrorist. Many Americans were killed by white American and as always the blame is directed towards Muslims community. For example, the recent tragic that took place in Las Vegas, the killer was white American who shot killed and injured more than 300 people in Music concert how sad is that. As always Answer covering this issue as a terrorist and not as killer. That was considered as a mental health issue and it was not considered as a terrorist attack. However, one of the many articles that were published to discuss the issue of the muslim ban was published by the BBC and talked about the many protests all over the country to take down the ban. A week after signing the order,  judges in Seattle blocked the ban nationwide. Trump supporters say that is one of the ways to make America great again. The ban would suspend the coming of refuges for 120 days. The ban also reduces the number of refugees accepted to the United States to 50,000 after former president Barak Obama increased it to 110,000. Priority will be given to religious minorities that lives in the seven countries like Christians in Syria and exceptions will made case by case. It also affected all of those who enter the United States from the seven countries for 90 days or those who have refugee and non-refugee visa. Those who have green card, permit legal U.S resident are also subject to this ban which caused a lot of concern and confusion. Later that month the department of homeland security issued a statement saying that green card holder can enter the United States The ban caused many of lawsuits and it was close to end up at the supreme court. In 1965 congresses passed the immigration and nationality act which said that no one can be discriminate from getting visa based on sex, race, nationalities, and place of birth or place of resident. This raised a flag against the ban saying that these countries are Muslims. Trump and his supporters mentioned September 11 attack although none of the attackers are from these seven countries. This executive has faced so many refuses, The first order was blocked by the judges so Trump had to sign a revised order removing Iraq from the banned list because the original of the executive order blocked citizens of the seven effective countries Iraq, Sudan, Somalia, Syria, Iran, Yemen and Libya as well as all refugees across the globe. The second order was blocked by judges too, but the Supreme Court allowed it to go into effect with a significant caveat. “As president, I must act to protect the security and interests of the United States and its people,” Trump said. There is no reason to accomplish this executive, thus this executive order has been challenged several times. Trump failed to ban nationals from other Muslim countries. For example, Saudi Arabia, from where the september terrorists hailed as he mentioned. Therefore, it is clear that by targeting Muslim nations directly address the discrimination issue. This makes people hate Muslims. As a muslim I think that when a president says this to his citizens brings hate for the Muslim people. A way to change people’s mind or to solve the hate that people have about Muslims is by meeting Muslims from different countries, and being able to understand their culture and the way they think. Meeting over a big table with food that will totally change their minds if they ever visited a Muslim family house. Around the world, someone is displaced every three seconds, forced from their homes by violence, war and persecution. Our society going to another direction we failed as being human. I was able to meet people and talk about this issue with others and share my experience and what others can do to help. Refugee Road, an interactive experience that provides insights into what life is like for Syrian or Iraqi people. To date, the violence in Syria has forced more than 11 million people to flee their homes. Oxfam developed Refugee Road to help others better understand the crisis and how to get involved. As part of the event, Oxfam humanitarian experts will share the latest developments surrounding the crisis, including the impact of the recent U.S. government decisions and what U.S. citizens can do to help.“Anyone who cannot name our enemy is not fit to lead this country,” Trump said at one campaign speech in Ohio. During another one, in Philadelphia, he drove home the attack: “We now have an administration and a former secretary of state who refuse to say ‘radical Islamic terrorism.’ ” (David Neiwert) If you can not tell who’s your enemy then you are not the right person to our country. What Trump says it is totally a discrimination toward one specific group hate of Muslim religion. Which is against the freedom of speech and practice of the religion.  From the article they said “It was a strange place to make his point. The only Islamist terror attack in Pennsylvania over the past 15 years was committed by Edward Archer, a mentally ill man who shot and injured a police officer in early 2016, later telling investigators that he pledged allegiance to the Islamic State. Far-right episodes of violent extremism were far more common” according to the article there were non Muslim that attacked any americans so there is no way for him to use that as an evidence of Muslim people are terrorist. Another article was published by The New York Times talked about the executive order of the Muslim travel ban that was issued by Donald trump. A 34 years old Muslim woman, her name Sulaika Abokor, an elementary school teacher in London was planning on a vacation in seattle in the summer to see a her friend who was recently married. Sulaika fell in love with the city in her last visit to the United States. But because of the administration’s travel ban prohibition Muslims from entering and visiting the United States she knew that it was not going to happen. Even Though Ms. Sulaika Abokor is a citizen of Great Britain that did not make any difference, because at the end she is Muslim with a nationality from Somalia which is one of the six countries that were effective by the executive. She is scared that she would have a hard time getting to the States because of her nationality but by the end she was allowed to enter the country but with some excuses such as having a letter from Columbia University attesting to the fact that she was on a weeklong Dart Center Ochberg fellowship focusing on trauma and the reporting of violence and also she had a current visa. But what if someone from one of these countries wanted to visit a family member or planning to spend a vacation the United States, how would they be treated ? it is sadly that Muslims facing problems and people’s mind. People will do things without knowing it will hurt other people’s feelings and it would make their lives harder. Nelson Mandela quoted “No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.” We all are born with love and we are not born with hate; prejudice must be learned, we thought ourselves to be more prejudice than before. Discrimination was thought 40 years ago but now we are more educated in discrimination. Second point, Emotions play an important role in prejudice and stereotypes of people. Based on the research article the social psychology of religion, prejudice and intergroup processes the author said that the emotion is important in prejudice. As Rowatt, PhD said in his article: “Expressed religious prejudice is fairly low in most cultures, but covert forms of religious prejudice assessed by implicit measures are likely higher. It’s a tricky question because the self-report measures are susceptible to a variety of influences that could lead one to question their accuracy.” ( Rowatt,2015). He talks more about the variety of people. It’s known that religious prejudice is very low in Iraq not until after the war, people start getting TV’s and got an access to the internet. So now people talk more, when a third person gets in between two, problems might happen. And began with hate. A question was asked to Rowatt, PHD by The American Psychological Association “how is it that the actions of small minority of people can affect the public’s view toward a large group, such as Muslims overall?” This question’s answer was that every day people can reacts crazy about one person that did something wrong and judge everyone in that religion which is called hate crime for one religion.In conclusion, prejudice only brings hate and divides people into different groups. Different groups will stand all together or to hate another group. People can’t live their lives with hate. Prejudice can bring people thinking to hate, reaction or feeling angry. Based from my experience I learned to deal with many different kinds of people. It is wrong when someone judges a person based on their culture or based on what one person did wrong. The community can be better in everything for the next generation. How people take whatever they hear or read. Everyone should be able to avoid being in one box and the thoughts that everybody else have about one group of people. The muslim society faced the phobia of fear of Muslims in the United State. Muslims are peaceful group who protect their religion and respect other people’s beliefs and religions. On the other hand, there is always a good side and a bad side. There are few muslims who are part of ISIS and these few do not represent the whole Muslim religion as other people think. One more important point about this executive, that many sectors of the american economy will be affected. In fact, this discriminatory travel order threatens many groups of people and will lead to a real issue that the United States will face because it will limit the timely global scientific exchange between the United States and other countries including the countries that were affected by the ban which will decreases the development of the community.

SOP

                                                Statement of Purpose

Introduction and Academics:

There is an old worldview that says, “To stay where you are, continue running”. Today I understand how obvious it is on account of unless we monitor the progressions and advances being influenced we to will be thought about untouchable. As I remain at the edge of finishing my undergrad examine, after deliberately thinking about the different vocation alternatives open to me I have chosen to go in for graduate examination that calls for individual responsibility in satisfying the specialties of free research and committed inclusion. Thusly, I should get scholarly fulfillment and satisfaction of turning into a benefactor of learning with inquire about, and the more prominent individual prizes of memory and revelation. Presently, very nearly fulfillment of my Under-Graduate Studies, I understand that my present information would not get the job done. I feel that unless one is savvy in his field, one can’t be completely fulfilled.

 

I likewise feel that “Each individual is conceived with an intrinsic pizazz, the minute your acknowledge it you turn into an awesome individual”. It was at secondary school that my interest for electronic devices combined with a want to be a gifted software engineer, provoked me to pick Electrical and Electronics as the major for my Bachelor’s Degree.

 

I was not content with simply understanding a wonder, but rather needed an ongoing background. This enthusiasm for consistent and computational reasoning drove me to take up Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry as my significant subjects at the Pre-University level in the wake of finishing my Schooling with %. I finished my pre-University training with %.

 

For my under graduate investigations, I have settled on ” Electrical and Electronics Engineering” in SRTIST College of Technology, where I locate my persistent examination has conveyed home to me firmly, that there is as yet a huge field that I should investigate and ace to accomplish my objective of being the best. The monetary innovative progression that is occurring in India would guarantee that I would have the capacity to utilize my skill, to make my nation a pioneer in the territory of Information Science and Technology. My skill in building subjects soaked up in me, an enthusiasm to seek after further instruction in this field.

 

Amid my undergrad thinks about, I understood that the educational programs was thorough. It gave a top to bottom hypothetical foundation of each subject, however that was insufficient for me. I required a program that would help me to get a more elevated amount of information, administration aptitudes and critical thinking capacity to handle the most different and complex issues.

 

It was my second year in school. I had an opportunity to take up PC programming and Networking as a major aspect of my educational programs. Despite everything I recollect the great circumstances I used to spend in the Computer Science lab composing out projects in C-dialect and Networking. Because of my advantage, I was granted with a decent evaluation in that subject. That is the point at which I came to realize that I had a characteristic slant towards PCs, which has now turned into a want, a main impetus to seek after my Masters in Information Technology.

During the last two years, besides the college academics I spent most of my time attending a number of extra-curricular workshops, seminars and conferences in different fields of computer science. I have acquired an excellent knowledge of programming languages like C, C++, JAVA, and .NET through certifications done out my self-interest. I have also found penchant for Network Security, Operating System and Data Structures. I also had the opportunity to present a seminar on OSI model of computer networking, during an intercollege competition.

 

Proficient Experience

 

After Graduation, I got an offer in MechTurbo as a Junior Electrical Engineer. From the previous 1.5 years I have been acting as a Junior Electrical Engineer. Parallely I wanted to seek after Masters in Australia. I

 

Why UNSW:

 

College of New South Wales is a state funded college built up in 1949 and is essentially situated in Kensington, being arranged not a long way from the focal point of Sydney, Australia. The college gives instruction to 50,516 graduate and college understudies and is home to 5,300 regulatory and scholastic staff. NSW is most outstanding for its scholastics in Engineering, Economics, Science, Commerce, Medicine, Combined Law, and Arts.

 

I am looking for a college which not just gives a decent air to inventive commitment yet which likewise offers a nearby presentation amongst understudy and workforce. I trust workforce availability assumes a key part in moving understudies to be enthusiastic about their fields of study and in keeping them from becoming debilitated from the workload or from troublesome issues. Other than the various assets and conductive climate, learning at your college would give me the chance to expand my viewpoint facilitate by interfacing with understudies and workforce from various nationalities and cultures.I emphatically trust that I have the fundamental fitness, teach and diligence in accomplishing my desire.

 

The University has World-class personnel, where Groundbreaking examination is embraced giving limitless future. The understudy group is various and lively. It has earned a notoriety for scholarly and look into magnificence. Its projects positively affect the world. Here gifted understudies get liberal direct help. The arrangement for assistance is focused and is America’s ideal. Understudies can procure a stand-out training here.

 

I try to learn at a place where the staff pioneers quiet care ideas, which reclassify drug store rehearse, where sweeping activities are taken in new solution treatments, where look into disclosures are felt in research centers the world over. It must show a promise to brilliance, and scatter new learning. I find that your place meets these criteria and this is the reason and premise of my inclination.

 

The University staff gives Cutting-edge research to pick up skill in sedate plan, tranquilize conveyance, and medicine treatment administration. Gaining from the individuals who serve on national advisory groups and sheets, which impact the course of research and social insurance approach will be an incredible lift for me. They endeavor ceaselessly to execute better approaches to enhance the strength of the general population.

 

I assumed that once an understudy is admitted to the College, he is allotted an individual scholastic guide who help in arranging plans and should endorse the courses which every understudy chooses. They additionally exhort on electives and help with deciding the best calendar. The counselor has a say in scholastic or individual issues, and is viewed as a close companion. He is intrigued and experienced to give assistance.

Why USA:

USA provides the best possible academic life and as my life depends on academics I feel it is ideal for me. I am at home with the atmosphere and usage of English. It facilitates improvements in technology and equips me with the knowledge of integrating technology with business to know the viability of a product. It makes the student a techno-manager and gives a global outlook. Interaction with students and faculty and a vibrant atmosphere make for great learning. It offers programs perfectly combining cutting-edge engineering courses with modern business practices and opens a new world of opportunities. It is flexible and provides considerable scope for career opportunities. It enables the student to seek employment in business and commercial fields

Why MIS?

Information technology is a further step to mankind.

From the past few decades, the capabilities of both generation and collection of data has been increasing in great pace. The main factors include the computerization in all the sectors such as business, science, government and management. In addition to these, the World Wide Web which is a global information system has loaded us with a tremendous amount of data and information. The present scenario of online banking transactions is a good example of the need of secure and convenient information system. This explosive growth in stored data has generated an urgent need for new techniques and tools that can intelligently assist us in the management of data and information. So, defining new methods and utilizing the present tools of managing information system in a more efficient way could be a flourishing frontier in the information field for the days ahead. Beside we should not forget: The need is great in the future.

The present world is surrounded by the data and information field. On one hand, these data present the potential for us to discover useful information and knowledge not seen before. On the other hand, we are limited in our ability to manually process large amounts of data to discover useful information and knowledge. So, the need of better tools and application as well as the reliable methods of utilizing the data and information is the eminent necessity of not only today’s world but the future also. The real-time processing and analysis of various data and information should be realized. There should be a constant evaluation of the system indicating relatively strong work handling capacity and expansion capacity; useful for optimization, reduction of management risks, and improvement of information efficiency.

 

Goal

“Ordinary people strive for living hood and geniuses strive to provide it for others also”. This is the way I look at life. In my perspective, the education you pursue and the job you do should help the needy in some way or the other. In my nearer future, I want to be in a good position by establishing my own firm and generate employment for others. Thus it will be a two way beneficial. If I will be able to do that I will become a role model for at least a few.

 

Reasons to Come Back to India:

It will be good to study in Australia and work as an intern for a while. Thereafter, I will come back to look after and support my parents who have stood behind me in every major decision of my life. Moreover, my family owns property assets in India worth INR 1,000,000. My parents are fast approaching their retirement in their respective fields and I would want to spend my time with the in this important phase of their lives. Also, the desire of working in my country, in a high paying job has always been a dream that I would want to fulfill.

 

Visa Subclass 500

I have studied and understood the following visa rules and regulations:

I can work up part time up to 40 hours per fortnight
 I need to maintain 80% attendance during academics
 I should pay my tuition fees by the census date of each term
 I should notify University of New South Wales and DIBP within 7 days of any change to my

Residential address

 I am not allowed to transfer to another university before completing 6 months in CQU
 I should maintain my OSHC for the duration of my student visa
 I have to score minimum of 50% aggregate in every semester

 

Conclusion

The decision of pursuing my Master of Information Technology at University of New South Wales in Australia is the most important decision of my life. It is going to involve a significant investment of time and money and I am well aware of my responsibility to work hard and do the necessary to complete my course and graduate so that I can pursue my dream. With high hopes, I am looking forward to joining University of New South Wales to fulfill my career objective of joining a top software company in India and develop a successful career in this industry. I hope my application for a student visa will be granted.

 

 

battles of the revolutionary war

The revolutionary war was a war between the American colonists and England. The French also fought alongside the colonists to help them gain freedom from England. The colonists were fighting for freedom because they believed England was being unfair with new laws for the colonies. The war lasted from the spring of 1775 to the fall 1783.There were many battles throughout the course of the war. They were fought on land and on sea. I believe that three of the most important battles were the battle of Bunker Hill, the battle of Long Island and the battle of Yorktown. Although there were many battles fought, these three had a major impact on the outcome of the war.In the battle of Bunker Hill, most of the fighting actually occurred at nearby Breed’s Hill, outside of Boston.  This battle was one of the first major battles of the war, many colonists and British soldiers died. Before the fight, the colonists general, William Prescott said, “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!”  because back then, guns didn’t have good aim and neither did many of the colonists.  Unfortunately, England won the fight but the damage to the British was a great confidence and morale booster for the colonists. Afterwards, England saw how costly the war was going to be and realized this was not going to be a quick war. The battle occured on June 17, 1775. In the battle of Long Island, general George Washington found out that the British would be attacking in days. The british sailed to the shore, where Washington had 11,000 troops waiting. At the time, New York was a big port town for ships so they could bring materials in. So, the british sailed to Long Island, and attacked. They first went to the front, getting smashed by the colonists. Next, they went to the side and went into a full-on battle. Last, they snuck around the back and attacked fiercely. The colonists were surrounded. Many troops died. So, general Howe thought we would surrender so he set up camp and waited. Instead, in the dead of night, Washington evacuated back to Pennsylvania in the fog and rain. Weeks later, the British captured New York, this was a major defeat and loss of a major port town but Washington’s retreat had saved many troops and supplies, giving us a chance to fight another day.  The battle occured on August 27, 1776. In the final battle of the war, the siege of Yorktown, the patriots and the French had as many as  17,000 combined troops and the British had 8,000. The battle was long lasting, it went on for nearly a month. The French came in from the Atlantic Ocean with their many ships, General Washington brought in troops from the north and after weeks of fighting the British finally surrendered and started negotiations for peace.  When the British prime minister heard the news he said; “Oh God, it’s all over.” so it was.  During the surrender, the British tried to surrender to the French, but they told them to surrender to the colonists.  General Cornwallis pretended to be ill, so Brigadier General Charles O’hara attended on his behalf. The battle lasted from September 28, 1781 to October 19, 1781.  Although battles continued between sides at sea, this victory for the continental army was the end of the war in the American colonies.   There were many battles in the Revolutionary War. These few battles to me are some of the most important. The battle of Bunker Hill, it proved to the British that this was not going to be a quick war. The battle of Long Island showed that even though it looked like we were going to lose the war, we didn’t give up and Washington was becoming a wise leader. The battle of Yorktown, the colonists got some help from the French, and after weeks of fighting, the British were surrounded and they gave up. At the time of the Revolutionary War, the British were a powerful empire  and a tiny group of their colonists  had enough. So, they got some help from the French, and the colonists pulled through and won the war. The battle lasted six years, but the colonists managed to pull it off and win the war and make what we call The United States of America today.

hey

Researchers have suggested that incidents involving the presence
of a weapon will have a negative impact on eyewitness performance (Kassin et
al., 2001). This phenomenon is referred to as the weapon focus effect (Loftus
et al., 1987). The presence of a weapon captures the attention of an eyewitness,
decreasing their ability to recall an accurate description of the perpetrator (Pickel
et al., 2003) and resulting in diminished identification accuracy in subsequent
suspect line-ups (Loftus et al., 1987). Therefore, the presence of a gun in
this case study could be a key factor that contributed to the misidentification
and wrongful conviction of Odom.

 

The mechanisms underlying the weapon focus effect are largely unclear,
however, most of studies in this area are based on two theoretical
explanations: the arousal/threat hypothesis and the unusual item hypothesis (Fawcett
et al., 2013). Easterbrook’s (1959) cue-utilization theory is founded on the arousal/threat
hypothesis. It claims that physiological arousal decreases the number of environmental
cues that can be concurrently monitored. Only those cues that are the focus of
attention are utilised. When this theory is applied to the weapon focus effect,
the presence of a weapon is considered threatening and elevates physiological
arousal. This results in a fixation on the weapon and decrease of peripheral
stimuli, thus diminishing memory for details of the perpetrator. Whilst the arousal/threat
hypothesis has been supported by a number of different studies (Peters, 1988),
several other studies have been unsuccessful in finding an effect (Maass &
Kohnken, 1989). These contracting outcomes could be due to the artificial
methods used to elicit arousal and the problems with defining arousal. For
example, the arousal caused in real crimes could be a result of anxiety, fear or
an increased state of alertness (Hope & Wright, 2007). These
different sources of physiological arousal may influence memory recall differentially
(Fawcett et al., 2013).

 

Instead of associating increased levels of arousal with
attentional narrowing, other research has shown that unusualness can also
influence the attention of a witness (Antes, 1974). Surprising or unexpected
objects attract the observer’s attention compared to objects that are expected
given the scene’s content (Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). The unusual item hypothesis considers
weapons to be unusual in many contexts. In this instance, the victim in our
case study would not commonly associate the presence of a gun in her apartment
and therefore the victim’s attentional resources would be focused on resolving
the conflict existing between the gun and the schema representing her
environment. As a result details of the perpetrator would not be properly
encoded. This explanation has been supported by a growing number of studies
demonstrating this effect with unusual objects instead of weapons (Pickel, 1998).
In addition, weapon focus effect does not occur in situations where weapons
would be expected, for example at a shooting range (Pickel, 1999). These
findings are explained by the unusual item hypothesis, but not by the arousal/threat
hypothesis.

One
of the major limitations with the majority of studies that support these hypotheses
is the disconnection between the circumstances involved in witnessing of a real
crime and the circumstances involved in the laboratory research being conducted.
Some of the simulation and laboratory studies only expose participants to a
weapon for a brief period of time and then conduct a memory test shortly
afterwards (reference). In real situations perpetrator identifications rarely happens
this soon after the crime. For instance, in this case study the victim was
asked to view photos of possible suspects five weeks after the event. Furthermore,
there is a lack research exploring weapon exposure duration within the experimental
weapon focus literature (Fawcett et al., 2013). It is important for additional
studies to explore in more detail the relationship between retention interval,
exposure duration and weapon focus (Fawcett et al., 2013).

Despite
these differing explanations, research has consistently demonstrated that the
presence of a weapon has a negative effect on both feature and identification
accuracy under controlled conditions (Pickel, 2007). However, field and archival
studies have failed to produce a reliable effect of weapon presence (Cooper et
al., 2002; Valentine et al., 2003). This suggests that weapon focus is
currently limited to laboratory and simulation experiments. Fawcett et al (2013)
are not convinced with this outcome and instead argue that this affect is present
outside the labResearchers have suggested that incidents involving the presence
of a weapon will have a negative impact on eyewitness performance (Kassin et
al., 2001). This phenomenon is referred to as the weapon focus effect (Loftus
et al., 1987). The presence of a weapon captures the attention of an eyewitness,
decreasing their ability to recall an accurate description of the perpetrator (Pickel
et al., 2003) and resulting in diminished identification accuracy in subsequent
suspect line-ups (Loftus et al., 1987). Therefore, the presence of a gun in
this case study could be a key factor that contributed to the misidentification
and wrongful conviction of Odom.

 

The mechanisms underlying the weapon focus effect are largely unclear,
however, most of studies in this area are based on two theoretical
explanations: the arousal/threat hypothesis and the unusual item hypothesis (Fawcett
et al., 2013). Easterbrook’s (1959) cue-utilization theory is founded on the arousal/threat
hypothesis. It claims that physiological arousal decreases the number of environmental
cues that can be concurrently monitored. Only those cues that are the focus of
attention are utilised. When this theory is applied to the weapon focus effect,
the presence of a weapon is considered threatening and elevates physiological
arousal. This results in a fixation on the weapon and decrease of peripheral
stimuli, thus diminishing memory for details of the perpetrator. Whilst the arousal/threat
hypothesis has been supported by a number of different studies (Peters, 1988),
several other studies have been unsuccessful in finding an effect (Maass &
Kohnken, 1989). These contracting outcomes could be due to the artificial
methods used to elicit arousal and the problems with defining arousal. For
example, the arousal caused in real crimes could be a result of anxiety, fear or
an increased state of alertness (Hope & Wright, 2007). These
different sources of physiological arousal may influence memory recall differentially
(Fawcett et al., 2013).

 

Instead of associating increased levels of arousal with
attentional narrowing, other research has shown that unusualness can also
influence the attention of a witness (Antes, 1974). Surprising or unexpected
objects attract the observer’s attention compared to objects that are expected
given the scene’s content (Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). The unusual item hypothesis considers
weapons to be unusual in many contexts. In this instance, the victim in our
case study would not commonly associate the presence of a gun in her apartment
and therefore the victim’s attentional resources would be focused on resolving
the conflict existing between the gun and the schema representing her
environment. As a result details of the perpetrator would not be properly
encoded. This explanation has been supported by a growing number of studies
demonstrating this effect with unusual objects instead of weapons (Pickel, 1998).
In addition, weapon focus effect does not occur in situations where weapons
would be expected, for example at a shooting range (Pickel, 1999). These
findings are explained by the unusual item hypothesis, but not by the arousal/threat
hypothesis.

One
of the major limitations with the majority of studies that support these hypotheses
is the disconnection between the circumstances involved in witnessing of a real
crime and the circumstances involved in the laboratory research being conducted.
Some of the simulation and laboratory studies only expose participants to a
weapon for a brief period of time and then conduct a memory test shortly
afterwards (reference). In real situations perpetrator identifications rarely happens
this soon after the crime. For instance, in this case study the victim was
asked to view photos of possible suspects five weeks after the event. Furthermore,
there is a lack research exploring weapon exposure duration within the experimental
weapon focus literature (Fawcett et al., 2013). It is important for additional
studies to explore in more detail the relationship between retention interval,
exposure duration and weapon focus (Fawcett et al., 2013).

Despite
these differing explanations, research has consistently demonstrated that the
presence of a weapon has a negative effect on both feature and identification
accuracy under controlled conditions (Pickel, 2007). However, field and archival
studies have failed to produce a reliable effect of weapon presence (Cooper et
al., 2002; Valentine et al., 2003). This suggests that weapon focus is
currently limited to laboratory and simulation experiments. Fawcett et al (2013)
are not convinced with this outcome and instead argue that this affect is present
outside the laboratory but obscured by the complexities of real-world crime.

The findings from the current literature need to be
considered when developing public policy on the credibility of the weapon focus
phenomenon in a court of law (Fawcett et al, 2013). Given the general
failure to identify any negative impact of weapon presence in the real world,
some researchers have suggested that the weapon focus effect should be
dismissed as irrelevant to the topic of eyewitness testimony. This argument has
been supported by two major governmental reports issued in both the USA (Mecklenburg,
2006) and the UK (Pike et al., 2002).

However, some researchers argue that it would be beneficial prosecution
and defence lawyers to hear expert evidence concerning weapon focus in relevant
cases to assure witness testimony does not lead to miscarriages of justice (Fawcett et
al., 2013).oratory but obscured by the complexities of real-world crime.

The findings from the current literature need to be
considered when developing public policy on the credibility of the weapon focus
phenomenon in a court of law (Fawcett et al, 2013). Given the general
failure to identify any negative impact of weapon presence in the real world,
some researchers have suggested that the weapon focus effect should be
dismissed as irrelevant to the topic of eyewitness testimony. This argument has
been supported by two major governmental reports issued in both the USA (Mecklenburg,
2006) and the UK (Pike et al., 2002).

However, some researchers argue that it would be beneficial prosecution
and defence lawyers to hear expert evidence concerning weapon focus in relevant
cases to assure witness testimony does not lead to miscarriages of justice (Fawcett et
al., 2013).

q?qw

Site response is a
function of soil profile and the probable
distribution of soil profile has a significant
effect on the site response. This study presents the effects of random
variations of soil properties on the site response using the different
probabilistic distributions. The important characteristics of local soil,
including soil properties, the layering, and shear wave velocity (

),
which
are considered to implement the random
variations. The stochastic processes are generated by using the different
distribution models with the coefficient of variation. In this paper, a proposed
procedure is developed to perform the
variability of soil properties. The coding of this new procedure is based on
the original SHAKE91 framework. However, instead of using the fixed the soil
profile, an uncertainty of layering and

 is generated
as the input data. It is found that obtained statistical medians from all
possible input under the different stochastic processes give good agreements with
baseline data. Additionally, the results of these analyses indicate that the
variations of nonlinear soil property have a significant impact on the behavior of the soil, especially at high
frequencies. On the other hand, the random of variation layering and

 profile has small effects on the soil response.

Keywords: site response analysis, probabilistic
distribution, random site properties, soil profile, shear modulus.

1.      
Background

Site response analysis is an
important method to simulate the seismic waves from the underlying bedrock motion
to surface ground motion through
local soil conditions. The properties of the local soil conditions such as the
layering, the shear wave velocity (

)
and the modulus reduction and damping (MRD) curves have
significant influence to ground shaking.

Characteristics of local soils have
been carried out in many works. By
assuming constant values of both the shear modulus and the damping factor of a
soil, Seed and Idriss (1969) provided an
appropriate analysis to estimate the surface response
during earthquakes. Based on comparison
between the laboratory and experiment tests, Seed et
al. (1986) proposed numerical models of relationship
between nonlinear shear modulus reduction and material damping increase curves
for sandy and gravelly soils. Effects of nonlinear dynamic soil properties
are investigated in studies of Hardin and Drnevich, (1972) – HD72; Anderson and Woods, (1975)
– AW75; Darendeli, (2001) – Da2001. An analytical model of nonlinear soil behavior with shear strain, namely hyperbolic model was developed by HD72. Later a
modified hyperbolic model has included
the published results by Da2001 to model the relationship between material
damping ratio and strain, using First-order, Second-moment Bayesian Method
-FSBM (which can be found in Gilbert, 1999) to
estimate the MRD curve. Besides, AW75 defined a
correlation number for the Ramberg-Osgood curve, which describes the relationship of shear modulus with shear strain.
A few formulas to predict the
shear modulus and damping ratios of soil properties were proposed by reanalyzing the field data on dynamic soil
properties, which was developed by Ishibashi and Zhang
(1993). Thereafter, Menq (2003) investigated
the dynamic properties of sandy and gravelly soils using the multi-mode
proposed device.

Usually, in practical earthquake
engineering, there are no data available about the stochastic variable, such as
the layer thickness,

,
density, shear modulus. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a simulation
technique of uncertainty processes. An essential part of the probabilistic
methods is the selection of probability distribution functions to represent the
uncertainty of the random variables considered. A statistical model was
developed by Toro (1995) – To1995 to randomize
the layering and

,
that

 variability was described a log-normal
distribution. Many
other authors also presented probabilistic approaches through several types of
research performed by (Koutsourelakis et al., 2002 –
Ko02; Popescu et al., 2006; Rathje et al., 2010 – Ra10). A non-Gaussian
distribution for soil properties and a non-stationary
random process for ground motion have been examined by Ko02 for evaluating of soil-structure system due to
liquefaction. The finite element
model for a soil profile under seismic excitation considering the influence of coefficient
of variation (COV) was modelled by
Nour et al. (2003) to analyze the behavior of site, that
the

 was
randomized by non-Gaussian distribution. Effect of spatial random soil on the
amplification between the ground
shaking and the bedrock motion was
included the research presented by Bazzurro and Cornell (2004). Two earthquakes in Taiwan and California was
reanalyzed by Andrade and Borja (2006) to investigate the soil response by comparing the
equivalent linear analysis (Idriss and Sun, 1993
– IS1993) and time domain nonlinear
analysis (Borja et al, 2000). Kwok et al. (2008), who evaluated the soil behavior
of site-specific in Turkey Flat using the nonlinear and equivalent-linear
ground-response computer code DEEPSOIL (Hashash
et al., 2012 – Ha2012) and
compared the prediction with measurement results together.

In this study, the site response
analyses are conducted using randomized soil deposit (soil profile and
nonlinear soil properties) for specific
site due to the seismic excitation. The property randomizations include (1) the
variation of dynamic soil properties based on the empirical model of Da2001, (2) the layering and

 of soil deposit from the surface to bedrock with the different
stochastic process using the To1995 model or
log-normal distribution. The influence of COV of layering and

 is also introduced to these procedures. In
addition, the proposed solution, namely PSHAKE
based on the original SHAKE91 framework of site response analysis is developed.
The results of fifty randomized profiles are used to confirm the influence of
random fields for soil properties on the site response analyses. The results of
maximum peak ground motion at each layer, the amplification and the spectral
acceleration (Sa) of ground motion at surface under current approaches are
compared with the resulting equivalent linear ground response software SHAKE91.

Hnc aromatherapy

HNC Aromatherapy Essential Oils  ContentsIntroduction                                page 1  Bergamot                                     page 1 Clary Sage                                    page 2Roman Camomile                       page 3Cypress                                         page 4 Eucalyptus                                    page 5 Geranium                                     page 6 Lavender                                       page 7 Peppermint                                  page 8Rosemary                                      page 9 Sandalwood                                 page 10 Blackpepper                                 page 11German Camomile                      page 12Frankincense                                page 13Jasmine                                          page 14 Juniper                                           page 15Lemon                                            page 16 French Marjoram                         page 17Rose                                                page 18 Ylang Ylang                                    page 19 Conclusion Introduction In this aromatherapy essay, I am going to speak about 20 essentials oils, also I will speak about their Latin name of each, plant family, country of origin, extracted method, classification, properties effects and some of my own notes that I have put together through research.Essential oil: Bergamot Latin Name: Citrus BergamiaPlant Family: Rutaceae Country of Origin: ItalyExtracted Method: Expression Classification: TOPProperties                                                                       • Anti-oxidant • Anti-inflammatory• Anti-depressant • Antiseptic • Antispasmodic• Analgesic EffectsBergamot is used in products to kill bacteria, to heal scars and minimize any marks on the skin, bergamot is used to help with the flow of vital energy to help with the digestive system to work properly. It is used to soothe things such as indigestion and gas, also helps with anxiety and depression and cures infections.Own Notes Citrus bergamia better known as bergamot belongs to the family of Ructaceae, bergamot has a very popular scent out in the industry (perfumery) which acts as a top note, the fruit bergamot is produced in many countries such as Morocco, Brazil, Turkey and South-East Asia although bergamot tree expands well in the Europe despite this being a tropical plant bergamot came from the Italians. Essential oil: Clary SageLatin Name: Salviasclarea Plant Family: Labiatae Country of Origin: FranceExtracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: TOPProperties • Anti-inflammatory                                                               • Anti-depressant• Anti-infectious• Astringent• Anti-fungal• AntisepticEffects Aid in treating dandruff, found skin health products and is a health promoter, helps to stimulate hair growth in all areas of the body, clary sage helps to limit the sebum that is produced in the scalp and reduces inflammation, also helps to aid oil-production. It is botanical for calming the nervous system and to treat things such as panic attacks, tension and migraines.Own Notes Clary sage is a native to Southern Europe, this essential oil lends power of both psychological and physical health, clary sage helps reduce any deep-seated tension in areas necessary within the body. Stimulating and an oil which treats weakness, paranoia and depression etc. But most importantly for relaxation. Essential oil: Roman Camomile Latin Name: Chamaemeium Nobile Plant Family: CompositaeCountry of Origin: England or France                                      Extracted Method: Classification: Steam distillation Classification: MIDDLEProperties                                                                                     • Anti-inflammatory• Anti-oxidant• Antispasmodic• Anti-infectious• Carminative • Anti-depressantEffectsRoman camomile is found in a variety of products, products which will give you a healthy look to your skin, roman camomile is used for a numerous amount of conditions i.e. digestive disorders, the essential oil contains anodyne compounds that are anti-spasmodic to treat the digestive issues also things such as gas, indigestion and vomiting, but in the products, it will help to soothe the stomach to relax muscles and relaxation, calms the mind.Own Notes Roman Camomile is a daisy looking like plant which is used for loads of therapeutic purposes. Ancient Romans would use camomile before battle to have the benefits of a clear mind. Essential oil: CypressLatin Name: Cupressus Sempervirens Plant Family: Cupressaceae Country of Origin: France or ItalyExtracted Method: Steam Distillation Classification: MIDDLEProperties  • Antiseptic • Antibacterial• Deodorant• Astringent • Diuretic Effects Cypress oil soothes sore muscles, increases blood circulation and helps to detoxify the skin, found in ingredients of bath products and many other products for stimulating and for the skin for its antiseptic and relaxation. Own NotesCypress essential oil is an oil that has been used for centuries, this is due to the amount of medical benefits that it has. Cypress essential oil is a evergreen woodland oil which is fresh in scent and used in aromatherapy massage for its relaxation of the mind and muscles and to regulate blood flow around the body.Essential oil: EucalyptusLatin name: Eucalyptus Globulus Plant Family: Myrtaceae Country of Origin: Australlia Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: TOPProperties                                                                           • Antispasmodic• Antiseptic • Antibacterial • Deodorant• Decongestant• Anti-inflammatory • StimulantEffects Eucalyptus is known to treat a variety of conditions to help clear your cough. By putting eucalyptus on your chest, it helps with any breathing difficulties specifically asthma, the healing process of eucalyptus is fast and a great way to get rid of any coughs and help with asthma, cleanses your body of toxins and dangerous microorganisms that can cause you to feel sick.   Own NotesIn Australia people had discovered that eucalyptus was one of the most natural medicines ever. The eucalyptus tree can grow to 2.5 metres a year. Although the South-Australia eucalyptus tallest tree grew to 150 metres tall.Essential oil: GeraniumLatin Name: Pelargonium GraveolensPlant Family: Geraniaceae                                                          Country of Origin: Russia or Egypt Extracted Method: Steam Distillation Classification: MIDDLEProperties • Non-sensitizing • Anti-depressant• Antiseptic• Antibacterial Effects Geranium oil prevents your skin from sagging, helps to tighten and contract muscles, geranium helps prevent bacteria on the skin. Helps to speed up healing process of any cuts, wounds and treat a variety of skin problems. It helps regeneration of dead cells to form new cells. Own NotesGeranium essential oil is a very popular plant (flowering plant) these are flowers that come in all different colours, shapes and sizes i.e. pink, purple, white and red or even blue. These flowers grow around 3ft tall and are found in all different countries but are a native to South Africa. Essential oil: Lavender Latin Name: Lavandula Angustifolia Plant Family: Labiatae Country of Origin: FranceExtracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: MIDDLEProperties • Anti-depressive• Antioxidant • Sedative                                                                                   • Antimicrobial Effects Slows aging process, improves the brain function, lavender helps with improving your sleeping routine, reduces acne, restores skin complexion. Mainly found in products for its relaxation. Own Notes Lavender oil has been used for centuries, Egyptians would use the essential oil lavender as a perfume, there was a faint scent of lavender that could still be discovered after 3000 years it is that common of an oil. Essential oil: Peppermint Latin Name: Mentha PiperitaPlant Family: Labiatae Country of Origin: France or England Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: TOP/MIDDLEProperties• Antimicrobial • Anti-inflammatory • Antispasmodic                                                                         • Antiviral • Antibacterial • Antifungal Effects Peppermint essential oil has a variety of effects which will help with the body, peppermint helps things such as headaches, depression, anxiety, clears the mind and boosts cognition. Reliefs any pain leaving it to have a soothing cooling effect on the body if their where any problems with muscular pains, wounds, reduce swelling etc. Own NotesPeppermint plant grows to 18-36 inches tall and roughly about 24 inches wide, peppermint is a very large plant and is a plant that is found to cure hiccups and Is produced by specialized cells on the underside of the leaves.Essential oil: Rosemary Latin Name: Rosmarinus Officinalis Plant Family: LabiataeCountry of Origin: France or Spain                                                                                 Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: MIDDLEProperties • Antiseptic • Antioxidant                                                                • Anti-cancer • Anti-inflammatory• Anti-fungalEffects Rosemary has a variety of effects as helping improve memory, helps with bile flow, great detoxifier, reduces pain.Own Notes Rosemary is an essential oil that is mainly known for it benefits to improve memory loss of anyone with serve bad memory, it is an oil that has been also used for centuries and is extracted from leaves.Essential oil: SandalwoodLatin Name: Santalum AlbumPlant Family: SantalaceaeCountry of Origin: India Extracted Method: Steam Distillation Classification: BASE Properties • Antiseptic                                                                                                                       • Anti-inflammatory                                                                 • Astringent • Diuretic • Sedative • Antiphlogistic • Antispasmodic Effects Relieves any spasms of muscles, kills any bacteria, kills infections, it can be used to improve the function of the heart, liver and stomach and is used to strengthen the muscles. Own NotesSandalwood is a strong essential oil that can last on its own, due to sandalwoods popularity in India it is becoming depleted so sandalwood has been source to other places throughout the years Australia, Hawaii etc where the oil is a little different but still has the amazing benefits.Essential oil: Black PepperLatin Name: Piper Nigrum Plant Family: PiperaceaeCounty of Origin: IndiaExtracted Method: Steam Distillation                                                                                                                                                                          Classification: MIDDLE/BASE                Properties                                                                                                                                               • Antimicrobial• Antioxidant• Antibacterial • Carminative• Anti-cancer Effects black pepper effects include prevention of cancer and diabetes. Enhanced brain health and improvements of digestive system. Own NotesBlack pepper is popular in America, although it is a native to India. Black pepper comes in other colours such as white, red and green however they all come from the same plant, it gets it kick from the compound peperine, black pepper loses its aroma through evaporation so it must be stored in a airtight container. Essential oil: German CamomileLatin Name: Matricaria Chamomilla Plant Family: AsteraceaeCountry of Origin: Eastern EuropeExtracted Method: Steam Expression                                                                               Classification: MIDDLEProperties • Carminative • Antispasmodic • Anti-catarrhal• Sedative • Antifungal• Antiseptic • Anti-InflammatoryEffects Camomile is helpful for a variety of conditions such as reduces nervous tension, restlessness, anxiety, helps with spasms, reduces inflammation and helps with any upset stomachs. Own NotesGerman camomile is a plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family it is a plant that originates from Europe but can be found throughout the world because of its popularity, it is a plant that is used for mechanical purposes. Essential Oil: Frankincense Latin Name: Baswellia Carteri Plant Family: BurseraceaeCountry of Origin: Africa                                                                                                                                                 Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: BASEProperties • Antiseptic • Sedative • Carminative • Diuretic EffectsTones and boost health, is a tonic, the digestive, respiratory, nervous system operating in the body system also strengthen to aid nutrients in the body but the essential oil makes the immune system stronger. Strengthens lift skin, tones and contracts the muscles (astringent).Own NotesFrankincense comes from French, it has a fresh and woody scent it is known as liquid gold. It is extracted from the bark of Baswellia tree this is a tree that grows in North Africa and India also Africa. Its uses through history is in religious rituals in the perfume industry and also in medicine. Essential oil: Jasmine Latin Name: Jasminium Officinale Plant Family: Oleaceae Country of Origin: France or EgyptExtracted Method: Enfleurage or Solvent Extraction Classification: BASEProperties • Antiseptic • Antidepressant• Antispasmodic                                                                                                                 • Antibacterial • Sedative• Aphrodisiac • Expectorant                                                                                                                              EffectsRejuvenates skin, Uplifting effects on the mind and body, stimulates certain hormones within the body and fights any depression.Own NotesJasmine (flower) which is known for being a highly famous flower is extracted from the latter variety. It has a strong scent and used for romantic couples. The jasmine essential oi belongs to the Oleaceae family but has more than 200 species, it is extracted from flowers of the plant which reaches a height of 10ft and are green leaves. Essential Oil: JuniperLatin Name: Juniperus Communis Plant Family: Cupressaceae Country of Origin: France or ItalyExtracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: MIDDLE                                                                    Properties• Antiviral • Diuretic• Antiseptic Effects Juniper acts as a diuretic to helps flush fluids from the body, boosts the immune sysem reduces fluid around the joints area, it helps with conditions such as acne, eczema, warts etc, uplifting and energetic effects.Own NotesJuniper berry plants stem from Bulgaria and have history of naturally helping illnesses long-term and short-term. Essential oil: LemonLatin Name: Citrus LimonPlant Family: Rutaceae Country of Origin: Italy or AmericaExtracted Method: Expression                                                              Classification: TOPProperties     • Antibacterial • Antifungal • Detoxifying • Astringent • Anti-infection • Antimicrobial EffectsLemon essential oil has a variety of effects on the body, it is known for removing any fatigue, contains vitamin c which means it helps boost the immune system. Own NotesLemon is a native to India, lemon comes from citrus linonum is extracted from the fruit peeling (cold expression) by adding 2 drops to your diffuser in your household this can help boost your immune system.Essential oil: French Majorana Latin Name: Origanum Majorana Plant Family: Labiatae Country of Origin: Spain or Egypt                                                  Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: MIDDLEProperties • Analgesic• Carminative • Expectorant • Antiviral • Antispasmodic• Antiseptic Effects Treats conditions such as muscular aches, muscle spasms, arthritis and has a soothing effect on the body, helps with sleeping routine and calming effect on the nervous system. Own NotesFrench Majorana was used in by the Greeks, it was a popular plant for helping with digestive problems and cramps, it is an oil extracted from steam distillation once its extracted from leaves and flowers of the herb. A few drops of this essential oil can be added to the bathe and can relieve any headaches or insomnia.Essential oil: Rose Latin Name: Rosa Damascena Plant Family: Rosaceae Country of Origin: Bulgaria or MoroccoExtracted Method: Steam Distillation or Solvent ExtractionClassification: BASEProperties   • Antidepressant • Astringent • Antispasmodic• Nervine • Antiseptic • Aphrodisiac Effects Rose essential oil can help with a variety of conditions such as treating lines and wrinkles, inhibits pigmentation, found in any antiaging products.Own NotesRose is cultivated all around the world, known for their sweetness and soothing scent and also for the colour of their blooms, history shows that they were introduced to Europe early on and were grown for their medicinical properties.Essential oil: Ylang Ylang Latin Name: Cananga OdorataPlant Family: Annonaceae Country of Origin: PhilippinesExtracted Method: Steam Distillation Classification: MIDDLE/BASE                                                         Properties • Sedative• Aphrodisiac • Antidepressant • Antiseptic • Antiseborrheic Effects Ylang Ylang is a heart health booster, mood Enhancer, digestive aid and has positive effect on immune health. Own NotesYlang Ylang tree is widely grown tree grown in tropical areas throughout Asia, Philippines and Polynesian islands.Essential oil: NeroliLatin Name: Citrus Aurantium Plant Family: Rutaceae Country of Origin: North Africa Extracted Method: Steam DistillationClassification: BASE Properties • Antidepressant • Aphrodisiac • Antiseptic • Bacterial • Sedative • Carminative                                                                     • Deodorant • Emollient • Antispasmodic Effects Neroli is known for a variety of things for its calming and relaxing scent, helps with anxiety and heart palpitations. Neroli essential oil helps with alleviation of digestive system. Own NotesNeroli essential oil is an oil extracted from flowers, the essential oil is known as citrus Aurantium, the bitter oranges of neroli can grow to a height of 9m (30ft) in height. Conclusion In this essay, I have completed information of 20 essential oils, their Latin name, plant family, country of origin, extracted method, classification, properties, effects and information of my own notes for each of the following essential oils above. By writing about these essential oils this will cover each individual essential oil in detail.Referenceshttps://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-bergamot-essential-oil.html https://draxe.com/clary-sage/ https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/cypress.html  https://draxe.com/eucalyptus-oil-uses-benefits/ https://draxe.com/10-geranium-oils-benefits-healthy-skin-much/ https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-peppermint-oil.html http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/amazing-benefits-of-black-pepper/#gref https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/neroli-essential-oil.html http://www.softschools.com/facts/plants/sandalwood_facts/1977/ http://www.beauty-tips.net/interesting-facts-about-rosemary-essential-oil/ https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-752-roman%20chamomile.aspx?activeingredientid=752&activeingredientname=roman%20chamomile https://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-7769/13-uses-for-lavender-oil-the-only-essential-oil-youll-need.html http://www.hobbyfarms.com/german-chamomile-vs-roman-chamomile-whats-the-difference/ https://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-juniper.html http://essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/lemon.htm https://www.annmariegianni.com/7-things-you-didnt-know-about-frankincense-essential-oil/ https://draxe.com/ylang-ylang/ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/emilie-davidson-hoyt/rose-oil-benefits_b_2633703.html https://www.quinessence.com/blog/sweet-marjoram-essential-oil https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-jasmine-essential-oil.html 

DIGITAL WATERMARKING

·       Introduction

A watermark is a form, image or text that is impressed into paper that
provides evidence of its authenticity. It is the form of bit pattern that is
inserted into a digital image, audio or video file which identifies the file’s
copyright information. The watermarking techniques are classified based on two
domains. Spatial domain is that the two subset positions are changed based in
the perceptual analysis denotes the variant intensity value in the image. A
digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant
signal such as an audio, video, image data.

 

·       Related Literature/Works

           Digital
watermarking is a technology of embedding watermark with intellectual property
rights into images, videos, audios, and other multimedia data by a certain
algorithm. The basic characteristics of digital watermark are imperceptibility,
capacity, robustness and false positive of watermarking algorithm and security
of the hiding place. Moreover, it is concluded that various attacks operators
are used for the assessment of watermarking systems, which supplies an
automated and fair analysis of substantial watermarking methods for chosen
application areas.

 

 

 

·      
Summary of findings from literature

         Watermarking the image files has
recently become the focus of much attention. The transmission rate of the data
over internet has played the major challenge that allows the illegal
proliferation of the watermarking relies on the desire to preserve the file
quality and also the damaging of the files need to be prevented. This review on
the different watermarking techniques gives the clear concept of the
watermarking scheme.

 

·      
Future research/Development
propositions

The advent of the Internet has resulted in many new
opportunities for the creation and delivery of content in digital form. Applications
include electronic advertising, real time video and audio delivery, digital
repositories and libraries, and Web publishing. An important issue that arises
in these applications is the protection of the rights of all participants. *It
has been recognized for quite some time that current copyright laws are
inadequate for dealing with digital data.

This has led to an interest towards developing new copy deterrence
and protection mechanisms. One such e?ort that has been attracting increasing
interest is based on digital watermarking techniques. Digital watermarking is
the process of embedding information into digital multimedia content such that
the information (which we call the watermark) can later be extracted or
detected for a variety of purposes including copy prevention and control.
Digital watermarking has become an active and important area of research, and
development and commercialization of watermarking techniques is being deemed
essential to help address some of the challenges faced by the rapid
proliferation of digital content.

david siegal

David Alan Siegel net worth-David Alan Siegel is an American based businessman and entrepreneur who founded Westgate resorts limited. According to Forbes, David has net worth of $4.9billion as of 2017. Westgate resorts, is one of the largest resort developers in the world and a huge national time share company. He is the CEO of CFI resorts management INC. and central Florida investments Inc. He has many other business-like insurance, transportation, construction, real state, travel services and hotels. Seigel also owns an arena football team named as Orlando Predators. He also bought Las Vegas hotel and cocoa beach pier. David Seigel was one of the founders of mystery fun house which was opened in march 28,1976 in Orlando, Florida. Biography & Wiki David Alan Siegel was born in a Jewish family on May 3 rd 1935 to Sidney and Saddle Siegel in Chicago, Florida. Siegel grew up in Miami Florida and completed his graduation from university of Miami in marketing and management before dropping out.Siegel married to Geraldine Florence Sanstrom in march 2016. They were blessed with three children. The couple got divorced in 1968. In 1970 he got married to Betty Tucker but the marriage doesn’t last long and got divorced in 1997. Finally, in 1998 he found the love of his life Jackie and the couple got engaged in the same year.CareerHe had a great career in politics. In the year 2000 David Alan Siegel battled for George W. Bush. David Alan Siegel sent an email to his workforces During the 2012 United States elections and hence created a huge disagreement and sort of a public discussion, conveying that they poll for Mitt Romney who was actually a Republican Party contender or else siegal has to take serious measures  (inclusive of dismissing on his company’s human resources). In the year 2015, it was acclaimed that his company had literally done a lot better and accomplished the finest year in the history and hence Siegel hiked $10 an hour minimal wage of his company.Awards and achievements-In the year 2012 The Queens of Versailles by  Lauren Greenfield was an award winning american documentary film.  David Siegel along with Jackie Siegel, both the Westgate Resorts owners was seen in the film, and their family as they  endeavor to construct an enormous and most costly single family house in the united states that is the Versailles house.To keep the ownership of Westgate’s Las Vegas high-rise resort which was brought by him last year, the PH Towers Westgate, the film also shows Siegel’s failure and hard work. Richard, the senior Westgate executive and Siegel’s son, is recited as saying that David Alan Siegel’s firmness of purpose not to lose the Ph Tower was a crucial source of the company’s financial problems in 2009-11. A majority of the stock of a business in the property was sold to Resort Finance America LLC on November 22, 2011.Net worth- David Alan Siegel (Timeshare king), 81, is the richest person in Orlando with a whopping net worth of $4.9 billion, according to an article by Forbes. David Alan Siegal is the richest person among the America’s 50 biggest cities.He is CEO of Westgate Resorts timeshare company which he founded in the year 1982. Apart from this he owned the Las Vegas hotel in 2016 and owns a football team and many other franchises.Conclusion- David siegal has always dreamed of living a life in king size and hence started off his journey through failures but he kept working hard. Now he has earned a huge amount of money throughout his life. He is literally a man of value. 

es

 

The
company I chose to research and go more in-depth about is the Function of
Beauty company. This company is less than a year old and is founded by an MIT
graduate Zahir Dossa. It’s a haircare that offers personalized shampoo and
conditioner specifically for their customers. Function of beauty offers over 12
billion different types of ingredients to their customers to build their own
set of shampoos and conditioners based on what the customer wants or prefers. To
build your own set of products as a customer, the company allows you to build
your own by taking a quiz on their website based on what you like and don’t
like in the product. 

First,
you get to answer questions like your hair type (straight, wavy, curly, coily),
your hair structure (fine, medium, coarse), your hair moisture (dry, normal,
oily) etc. Next will be to pick your five most hair goals (shine, volumize,
anti-frizz, straighten, deep condition, hydrate, color protection etc.) then
the customization of your shampoo and conditioner formula, the type of
fragrance (cucumber mint, essential oils, grapefruit hibiscus, sandalwood
violet), the sense of smell (light, medium, strong), the size of your bottles
you want and how frequent you want the product. You also get the chance to
customize your formulas which are all dye free and have your name personalized
on the bottle. Function of beauty saves all this information under your profile
to make it easy for the customer if he or she wants to reorder the product.

Function
of beauty is most targeted to the ages 60 or 65 years (age-old) with the
problem of having a better hair and it already has massive revenue of $110
million. The problem is with any new business, there is always strengths and
weaknesses because you don’t know whether customers are going to like your
products. When doing my research about this company, some of the weaknesses I
found was the company doesn’t make it easy for their customers to know exactly
the list of all ingredients that go into their products before they order. The
only information the customer is aware of is the ingredients they personally
chose themselves.

Their
price range was also another weakness I found. Function of beauty charges an
8ounce of shampoo and conditioner for $46 and 16ounze bottles will cost $46
which is relatively high compared to other hair care products. An average
person will typically spend twenty to twenty-seven dollars on hair care
products. Some of the strengths I found about this company was their payment
methods. The customer is guaranteed free shipping and free returns if he or she
is not satisfied with the product. The customer also gets the chance to
re-order their personalized products if they run out. Function of beauty also
offers subscription/monthly subscription to their customers. They also provide
online chat with a chemist if you don’t know what you want or what you are
looking for. Once the customer receives his or her product, there are
directions that guide you through washing and conditioning your hair.

Function
of beauty provides all the list of ingredients in the product when the customer
receives the company. It also guides you through how often you should wash your
hair using their product and helpful tips to keep your hair healthy. This
company’s potential growth has been massive so far even though it is less than
a year old and it has raised $12 million through Y Combinator. The company has
a team that hand fills the shampoos and conditioner, but with technology
advancing, function of beauty uses their robotic machines to fill out their
bottles quicker. The company allows their customers to give their feedback and
provide reviews about their products whether they like the product or dislike
the products. This allows the company to make some changes about their product
to please their customers.

I
chose this company to research because it is a new company that was started by
a college graduate. As for every business, there is always pros and cons. This company
caught my attention because haircare products are always important. We all want
good products that work for our hair, especially for women. When I researched
more about function of beauty, I found that it will be a good haircare company
because of the choices that the company offers. As individuals, we all have
different hair types and textures. Function of beauty was my favorite company because
of the choices you had as a customer and especially the quiz you take about
your hair type.

Some
of the things I liked the most was the goals you select for your hair. I took a
quiz at the function of beauty website for myself to see how the hair quiz was
set up and I really liked the information that was asked about my hair. Function
of beauty company focuses on their customers individually and makes them feel
special and cared for but not every company takes the time to do that for their
customers individually. One thing that will make customers frustrated will be
the fact that function of beauty does not tell you all the ingredients that go
into your product before you order them. Clicking on each goal is the only way
you can get a sense of what’s in your product.