Science Investigation – Heart rate and exercise relationship Introduction Throughout this experiment

Science Investigation – Heart rate and exercise relationship

Introduction
Throughout this experiment, as a group we will learn about how the heart and how it changes in different situations. The purpose is to see how the organ pumps blood while performing different activities. These activities are completed over 60m and are measured evenly for a fair test.

Background Theory
Blood is circulated to all parts of the body because it is essential for the health of tissues, as it provides the nutrients and oxygen required. Blood also removes the waste and carbon dioxide from cells.
A heart beat is the relaxation and contraction of your heart as it receives de oxygenated blood through the right atrium and pumps oxygenated blood to the body.

Your heart doesn’t beat at the same rate as, the harder you work, the more your muscles and tissues need blood and circulation to keep the going.

It would be useful, as your muscles are working harder, requiring more blood flow to keep them working. This blood flow comes from your heart and must speed up to pump quicker.

During activity, the body requires more oxygen than at a resting state, as it is working harder. This means the body will open its mouth and breathe through this instead of the nose. Oxygen is taken from the alveoli in the lungs through blood and is taken back towards the heart to then be pumped to the active tissues and muscles.

Aim
Analyze the relationship between exercise and heart rate, observe if heart rate increases/decreases with certain activities.

Hypothesis
If one sprints, then their heartrate will be faster than if they walk, because the heart needs to oxygenate more blood and pump it to the muscles and tissues in use.

Materials
1. Stopwatch
2. Computer (record data)
3. A 60m track

Procedure
1. Measure resting heart beat
2. Measure 60m track for walk/run
3. Walk 60m at average pace
4. Measure BPM after walk
5. Perform 2-minute cooldown
6. Perform step 3, 4, 5 again 2x
7. Calculate average BPM for 60m walk
8. Sprint 60m
9. Measure BPM after sprint
10. Perform 2-minute cool down
11. Perform step 8, 9, 10 again 2x
12. Calculate average BPM for sprint
HAZARD-
Identify the issue CONSEQUENCES-
List the likely outcome of an accident/incident MANAGEMENT-
Describe the practices employed to remove or reduce the risk and possible consequences

Tripping over If you were to trip over while running, then you could scrape your skin or get grass burn. This would affect the results Check the track for potholes or hazards before the athlete runs on the track.
Pulling a muscle
Pulling a muscle would cause the athlete to stop sprinting/walking, affecting the results Stretching before the athlete sprints/walks the track, reduces the risk and possible consequence of pulling a muscle

Results

Describe the results/data as they appear in your constructed graph. Provide details
about the overall trend, the characteristics of the trend and any anomalies that may be evident.

This graph showcases a great amount of data and results. Judging by the results in this graph it is evident that everyone’s BPM is highest after 60m Sprint and lowest when at rest. These three students do not have identical data. Sam Dickie has a resting pulse BPM of 79, Anthony tabet has a resting pulse BPM of 75.
79 – 75 = 74
The range from the highest resting pulse to the lowest is four. The overall pattern in this graph is that Sam Dickie has the highest average for every activity and Anthony Tabet has the lowest average. This leaves Joe Cotgreave in the middle. Also, everyone’s BPM gradually increases after every activity in order (Resting pulse, 60m Walk, 60m Sprint). The average resting pulse between the three boys is 77.5. And the average 60m Walk BPM between the three boys is 92.6.

(92.6 – 77.5)
—————- x100
77.5

= 15.1
—– x100
77.5

= 0.194839 x100
= 19.4839% change (from resting pulse BPM to 60m WALK BPM)

The average resting pulse between all three boys is 77.5.
And the average 60m Sprint BPM between all three boys is 122.3

(122.3 – 77.5)
—————— x100
77.5

= 44.8
——- x 100
77.5

= 0.578065 x 100
= 57.8065% change (from resting pulse BPM to 60M SPRINT BPM)
There is evidently a large percentage change between the first and last activity, 57.8% change.
Next the average 60m Walk BPM and the 60m Sprint BPM. The percentage changes
(122.3 – 92.6)
——————-x100
92.6
=29.7
——-x100
92.6
=0.320734 x100
= 32.0734% change (from 60m WALK BPM to 60M SPRINT BPM)

Discussion
Describe the functions of the circulatory and respiratory systems when an individual is at rest. Write a short description or series of steps which explains each process. Use your resting heart rate data to support.
The Circulatory and respiratory systems are very important. Firstly, the main function of the human circulatory system is to transports oxygen, c02, hormones and nutrients throughout the body. This then allows the body to sustain body temperature and help fight many types of diseases. The circulatory system contains blood vessels and the heart. The heart acts together with the lungs, portal vessels and arteries. The heart was a very unique and important cycle. It begins with the Venous return to the right atrium, venous flow arrives in the right ventricle, venous blood is sent in the lung via the pulmonary artery, after oxygenation in the lung the blood returns to the left atrium, red blood arrives in the left ventricle and finally red blood is sent in the arteries to the tissues. Also, when the body is at rest the circulatory systems progressively starts to slow down. This makes it easier circulate around the body. When the body is at rest, the human heart rate is at its lowest. Joe, Sam and Anthony BPM all increased drastically after every activity. Lowest being resting pulse, 60m Walk, 60m Sprint. Therefore, when a human is asleep your metabolism will slowly decrease, heartrate plummets and your bones will also grow. Your bones will only grow while you are asleep. Sleep also helps the circulatory system. If someone constantly lacks sleep than that will put a toll on the circulatory system. After a while, it is possible to have a heart attack or stroke. The human respiratory system is an extremely important. It’s a group of organs that is accountable for ridding c02 and taking in all the oxygen. The respiratory system has multiple organs, the most important organs of the system are the lungs. They are responsible for carrying out an exchange of certain gases while we breathe. The respiratory system is a large group of organs and tissues within your body that allow you to breathe. Mitochondria is a key part of the respiratory system, it powers the entire cell. They make and produce all the energy a cell could ever want, this energy is named ATP. The mitochondria cycle is Glucose + oxygen = Energy + Carbon dioxide + water. Overall the respiratory system most important purpose is to supply oxygen around the whole body and cardiovascular systems main purpose is to transport oxygen c02 throughout the body.

Analyse your resting heart rate and experimental data and explain what they indicate about the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable.

The independent variable (Activities) and dependent variable (BPM) have a very clear relationship. Judging by the data recorded in this experiment it is obvious that human heart is higher when performing tougher activities. Joe, Sam and Anthony all performed three different activities three times. All three of these boys’ heart rate was lowest during resting pulse. Their results were 75,78 and 79. This is substantially lower than the 60m and 60m run. Their results for the 60m walk were, 89,92 and 97. And their results for the 60m Sprint were 115,122,130. Overall the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is that the extremer the activity the higher your heart rate (BPM) will be.
Compare the results/data that you achieved in your experimentation with the background research and scientific theory that relates to your investigation to conclude whether your hypothesis was proven or disproven.
After completing the practical section in the assignment, it is evident that the hypothesis stated in section two was proven correct. The hypothesis states that “If one sprints, then their heartrate will be faster than if they walk, because the heart needs to oxygenate more blood and pump it to the muscles and tissues in use”. Judging by the work completed in the Background theory (Section 1) it is evident that the hypothesis is correct. Question 3 in the background theory states “Your heart doesn’t beat at the same rate as, the harder you work, the more your muscles and tissues need blood and circulation to keep the going”. This matches the investigation results, as it says that your heart rate changes as you perform more activities/actions. Also question 4 in the background theory clearly states “It would be useful, as your muscles are working harder, requiring more blood flow to keep them working. This blood flow comes from your heart and must speed up to pump quicker”. This further proves why your heart rate increases with activity. In conclusion, the hypothesis was proven correct as everyone’s heart rate dramatically increased after each activity.

Conduct research to explain the relationship between cardiovascular disease and lifestyle choices such as lack of physical activity or diet.

Cardiovascular disease is becoming a very large problem in today’s society. It is mainly caused by lack of physical activity and is the leading cause of death in Australia. It’s proven by scientists that an unhealthy lifestyle or lack of physical activity can lead to serious heart disease. Unhealthy lifestyle can majorly increase your chances of dying from heart disease. 27 percent of women and 53 percent of men living an unfit/sedentary lifestyle has a chance of developing heart disease. Exercise doesn’t just help you maintain a healthy physical shape, it increases your body circulation, helps clean and clear your arteries, gives you happiness and lubricates joints for better body movements. Cardiovascular disease isn’t only caused by lack of exercise and poor diet choices. Some other ways of developing Cardiovascular disease is by smoking, increasing age, high resting heart rate, kidney disease, mental health problems and high blood pressure. A person that doesn’t do thirty minutes of physical activity daily or is extremely inactive have a 40 percent higher risk of developing high blood pressure. Exercise is very good to help decrease your level of bad cholesterol in your blood. Maintaining a healthy diet decreases chances of developing coronary heart disease. Some fats are good, and some are unhealthy. In particular, trans and saturated fats are bad as they drastically increase your blood cholesterol levels. Monosaturated decrease chance of getting a heart attack. Some signs of heart disease are chest discomfort, heartburn of indigestion. Overall, heart disease can be due to many things, lack of physical activity and dietary issues are the main causes.

Provide one (1) justified recommendation for individuals your age (youth) to improve their lifestyle choices to limit the potential of cardiovascular disease in the future

One recommendation for youth to decrease the risk of developing a type of heart disease is starting a healthy diet to stop obesity. Especially in children, obesity is becoming a serious problem for many. A healthy and balanced diet is essential for youth. It encourages significant growth and helps prevent heart disease. Controlling number of calories is very important. If not closely watched, you can gain weight very easily. Severe weight gain is difficult for the heart to cope. Eating the correct amount of fats is also very important. Trans fats are the unhealthiest and is recommended to limit amount eaten. There are bad fats like trans and saturated, but also healthy fats like Cis Fats. Cis Fats actually are very good for the cardiovascular system and contain great cholesterol. Unlike trans fats which contain bad cholesterol which eventually leads to many diseases and illnesses. Staying healthy and fit is completely necessary for many reasons. Becoming obese/overweight gives you a higher chance of developing serious health problems and issues. Keeping a healthy weight will help to manage you blood pressure, blood sugar and levels of bad cholesterol. Obesity can result in many weight related issues. Heart disease, cancers and diabetes are consequences of obesity. In conclusion, monitoring number of calories and amount of fats eaten can help you maintain a healthy body weight to stay happy and healthy.

Reflect on the recommendation that you have suggested and discuss why this is a consideration of importance for youth in today’s society.

Becoming obese is a serious problem for youth in today’s society as it causes multiple weight issues and makes life un-enjoyable. Maintaining a healthy diet and performing some physical activity is essential for children. Exercise promotes well-being, lower your blood pressure and keeps you healthier in general. Obesity in youth should be closely watched, especially for the youth of this century. In a world where gaming is becoming more popular and more appropriate to many children, obesity and weight gain is a major problem. Some children aren’t close to clearing their 30 minutes of exercise per day. Fast food is also very unhealthy, contains large numbers of calories and many bad fats. People that become obese/overweight at an early age risk being obese for the remainder of the life. Obesity in adulthood gives you a much large chance of developing heart diseases, fatty liver disease, diabetes and many more. When children complete their homework or after school activities, they generally arrive home and use their electronic gadgets. This enlarges their chance of becoming obese in the near future. In conclusion, becoming obese nothing to proud of and will hold you back in the future.

Conclusion
Provide a summary of the findings about what happened in the investigation, what the finding is and indicate the data that supports or backs up your hypothesis.
In conclusion many things occurred in this experiment. It is evident that Sam Dickie, Joe Cotgreave and Anthony Tabet’s BPM was all lowest during resting pulse. All of their resting pulses combined averaged to 77.5 BPM. This was the first activity completed and requires the least amount of energy. Their 60m Walk BPM averages to 92.6, this was the second activity performed. This was everyone’s second highest BPM, their lowest being resting pulse. The final activity performed by the three boys was the 60m Sprint. All their BPM’s combined averaged 122.3. This is by far the highest BPM Average. Judging by these test results it is evident that everyone’s BPM raised significantly after each activity. This means that each activity (Resting Pulse, 60m Walk, 60m Sprint) got harder. Also, for every activity Anthony Tabet had the lowest BPM, Joe Cotgreave had the second lowest and Sam Dickie had the highest BPM. Therefore, this means that Anthony Tabet is the healthiest/fittest because his BPM was the lowest for every activity. Sam Dickie had the highest BPM for every activity. This is due to fact that his blood takes longer to circulate the entire body. Therefore, Sam Dickie is the most unfit within the group. In conclusion many things have been discovered during this investigation and the hypothesis “If one sprints, then their heartrate will be faster than if they walk, because the heart needs to oxygenate more blood and pump it to the muscles and tissues in use” was proven correct.

Bibliography
Heart disease in young people 2016, Heart foundation, accessed 5 September 2018, .

How lack of exercise causes heart disease 2017, Livestrong, accessed 5 September 2018, .

Portion Control: Why is it so important? 2016, Duke Diet & Fitness Center, accessed 5 September 2018, .

Prevention of Heart Disease starts in childhood 2016, University of Rochester Medical Center, accessed 5 September 2018, .

Respiratory System: Facts, functions and diseases 2018, LiveScience, accessed 5 September 2018, .
Weight Control 2016, MedlinePlus, U.S department of health and human services, accessed 5 September 2018, .