Freedom within journalism is an essential key to democracy and acts as a reflection of society. John Locke, an English Philosopher contributed important ideas to America’s founding fathers as well as promoting the power of individual reasoning. Freedom of speech and of the press are an important aspect of democracy because it aids in self governance and provides the public with tools to make educated decisions based on the whole truth being reported. In a sense it acts as a check and balance on the government and their actions through providing accountability, investigating issues and analyzes and interpreting for the public.JOUR 150 Lecture: Watchdogs Watchdog reporting is important aspect of journalism because it monitors government activity for accountability. “Muckrakers” was term first used by Theodore Roosevelt in the early 1900’s which referred to the journalists who uncovered dishonesty and corruption which began the aspect of being a “watchdog”. Some of the most important muckrakers throughout the course of history include Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Woodward and Bernstein, Spotlight Team.“Watergate in Three Minutes” The infamous Watergate Scandal started in 1972 when five men were arrested for breaking and entering in the Democratic National Committee office. One of the best efforts of journalism took place when Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward from the Washington Post investigated and trace the money trail to President Nixon’s reelection committee. They uncovered many other illegal actions which eventually brought the President’s involvement to the crime out to the public.Climate Change watchdog reporting: “Red Cross ‘failed for 12 days’ after historic Louisiana floods” After devastating floods swept through Louisiana in August 2016 where 13 people died and homes of more than 80,000 were badly damaged the Red Cross failed to provide aid and essentials up to their expected performance due to poor staffing and management. Many flood victims were left without food, water, shelter or medical treatment for over 24 hours at a time in shelters. Where are the Watchdogs Although new is changing, watchdog journalism is still a prevalent form of reporting to uncover and keep the public informed of any misguided actions from government officials. Murrey Marder, founder of Neiman Watchdog Project and a reporter from the Washington Post was the epitome of an advocate for this journalism style. The methods in which journalist obtain information has transformed into being favorable market for those with information.NPR: “Morning News Brief: Government Shutdown Enters 3rd Day” 1/22/18 The government is now beginning its 3rd day of shutdown and is gaining international media attraction. Democrats want DACA to stay in place, while President Trump has made his message clear-he does not want it. The democrats struggle to have faith in President Trump’s agreements due to his many backtracks on those concurrences. President Trump has also stated how detrimental the government shutdown is for our military and national security. This government shutdown appears to be getting worse and worse each day and seems as if there isn’t any progress on an agreement being made. This story was presented with no bias.NPR: “Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Reflects On The #MeToo Movement: ‘It’s About Time’” 1/22/18 Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg spoke strongly about how the #MeToo movement is long overdue and is pleased to see what it’s providing for women across the country. the potential threat it has against women getting hired because so many men might be afraid of the #metoo movement. Ginsburg doesn’t believe that the #MeToo movement will pose a potential threat against women getting hired by men for fear of the #MeToo and hasn’t seen any negative effects so far. Ginsburg also talked about several times throughout her life that she encountered sexism both in the workplace and college during law school. I did not detect any bias throughout this story.01/23Stovall Ch 6: Broadcast When there is big news we most likely see it first on television, because these news stories are instantly available and usually the quickest medium. Our opinions and feelings are largely influenced by what we hear and the images we see. When radio gained popularity in the early twentieth century it changed how news could be delivered, the speed in which it was delivered and increased the amount of people it could reach. A format is the generic programming that radio stations utilize to occupy their daily schedule. Cable and satellite technology aided in the growth of available channels for audiences and was pioneered by Ted Turner who own an Atlanta TV station. Broadcasting content is standardized through the government but they are often hesitant and slow to become involved.JOUR 150 lesson 7: Airwaves Guglielmo Marconi develops wireless radio in 1890s which soon led to the Radio Act of 1912, where licences were required to prevent any airway overlap and all radioactivity was monitored 24 hours a day. The Federal Communication Act followed in 1934 which could not enforce censorship but could enforce punishment. The government reasoned that they must be controlled by the government since the public owned the airwaves. There were limits on ownership to maintain competition and prevent a single organization dominating all news channels. FCC limited content, duration and indecency and enforced Fairness Doctrine. Cable follows a different set of regulations and are slightly more relaxed. The 1996 Federal Communications Act amended the 1934 law by adding internet and acted as a segway for the Big Six.“FCC Rules”Broadcasting indecent, profane or obscene content on television or radio is banned by the Federal Government. The First Amendment does not protect obscene content and has to meet the Supreme Court’s three-prong test, while indecent content does not meet the obscenity three-prong test but contains sexual activity. Profane content is considered a public nuisance through highly offensive language. Obscenity is never allowed to be broadcasted, but profane and indecent content can only be broadcasted between 10pm and 6am.NPR: “E-Cigarettes Likely Encourage Kids To Try Tobacco But May Help Adults Quit” 1/23/18 E-Cigarettes can have a negative impact on children and teenagers but may have a positive effect on adults. Teens that try or routinely use E-Cigs are more likely to try out Tobacco products, and ultimately feel more comfortable having a cigarette. E-Cigarettes can be used to help adults quit regular cigarettes but only if they are transitioning to the E-Cigarette exclusively, many adults are smoking both. Metal and other harmful additives are in E-Cigarettes and health effects from the smoke of pens has yet to be deeply studied.NPR: “Trash Is Literally Making a Big Stink Outside Of Moscow”1/23/18 Moscow is starting to have a really bad problem with the overall stink of the city. It appears that Russia is not concerned one bit about the overall health of the earth’s environment. There are very few dumps located nearby and the way they are eliminating the smell is by closing those dumps down. Which eventually is going to turn into a bigger problem. Russia also does not recycle at all, which could lead to more trash and smell. It’s very interesting to see how here in the United States we think that we are terrible to our ecosystem and environment (which could be very true) but to also see another country much bigger than ours that has no plans at all of recycling or making this planet more eco friendly.01/24JOUR 150 lesson 8: Newsrooms at work Inverted pyramid model is used in presenting news stories, giving the most important story or information first then working down in story significance. The leadline of a story is the introduction or attention grabber that offer a tid bit of interesting information to catch the reader/viewer’s attention. Which is followed by the lead, then the nut graph, quotation from someone and then a transition and then the body or chronology of the story. Journalism utilizes AP Style for numerals, addresses, dates and trademarks. Proper attribution is essential to give all parties due credit. Some helpful tips to remember when writing are using active voice and third person, being concise, removing own opinions and not directly addressing the audience. Revision and remove 10% to maintain concise points.State of the News Media 2016 The news industry suffered tremendously following the Great Recession in both digital and print and had one of its worst years in 2015, while cable, network and local TV were on the rise. Digital ad revenue is also climbing but not through journalism organizations but rather tech companies. The era of technological advancements have began to change the business and production of news overall. Many popular social media site are now the go to for information.NPR: “How Hockey Took Hold In Las Vegas”1/24/18 The Knights, a professional hockey team in Las Vegas are new and gaining popularity as one of the top NHL teams. The Knights played one of their first games right after the terrible attack that happened at the Route 91 harvest festival. The players where very active in supporting the community and maintaining a public presence in such a difficult time. This story did not contain any bias.NPR: “Philadelphia Says It Supports Supervised Drug Injection Sites” 1/24/18 Health officials in Philadelphia are urging the start of managed drug injection locations. The goal being to maintain a cleaner environment to avoid the spread of disease, which could reduce healthcare costs and help people who are addicted and seek treatment. Federal government officials are not supporting this idea. I did not sense any bias in this story.01/25Stovall Ch 9: Reporting When obtaining information journalist focus on the what, when, who, why, where and how questions when composing their stories. Information and material that are in electronic or written files are stored sources. A journalist’s biggest objective in reporting is producing an accurate and factual story so readers comprehend the content in a straightforward manner. The individuals who provide information to journalists are considered personal sources, which are especially valuable in daily journalism because the factual material has yet to be stored. The information that a journalist observes while reporting is considered observational sources.Personal and communication skills are key essentials in interviewing and obtaining information for a successful story. Indirect quotations summarize and utilize alternate words to convey the same message, while direct quotations use word for word messages from the source itself.Stovall Ch 10: Writing News and Features Strong journalism utilizes language in a confident, meaningful and useful manner that does not diminish overall creativity through the development of particular writing skills. Important characteristics of journalism are precision, clarity, efficiency and accuracy. Using an assortment of sentence structure and clear, easily understandable words and using proper attribution that give sources credit are critical to strong journalism. The structure of news stories are presented in an inverted pyramid which begins with the most imperative and new information first, order of importance dictates how the story is presented. In a news story the lead is the first paragraph. Feature writing typically focuses more on people than events but it still shares the vital component of accuracy that news stories do. A powerful writing tool is reviewing many solid example and employ them as a guide to your own writing. “Let’s Talk Newswriting” The objective of writing news is to give the reader/viewer useful information and begins with breaking news, the most important or influential to less important. Leads focus on what the reader desires to understand most first. Strong leads frequently start with important aspects of what, how or why, while it’s less common to begin them with a when, where or who as these are typically not the focal points. Direct quotes should elaborate the point previously made, not be redundant. Transitions are the glue that hold andpiece stories together and can include indirect quotations, partial quotations or facts. Aim to refrain from adding your own opinions, lengthy stories, poor spelling and grammar, first or second person and including all of the facts.“Passive vs. Active voice” In active voice writing the action is actively being done by the subject or object. In passive voice writing the action becomes the subject, the focal point of the sentence shifts. 1/25 NPR: “Rebellious Cow Finds Winter Home among Polish Bison A domestic cow seeks new home in the Bialowieza Forest, where approximately 600 wild bison reside. While it’s not particularly uncommon for a cow to escape to forest but it is one of the first recognized to join a herd of wild bison. Although the cow appears to be content and healthy, it could be potentially dangerous to mate with a bison and tarnish the bison gene pool. An endangered species that is slowly recovering and gaining numbers in the wild. This cute and light story was presented with the facts and no additional bias.1/25 NPR: Trump Meets With British and Israeli Prime Minister At World Economic Forum Earlier this week President Trump spoke out and squashed rumors about poor relations with the British Prime Minister and made it clear they both share a respectful relationship. President Trump will attend the World Economic Forum taking place in Davos, Switzerland. In meeting with the European leaders and Klaus Schwab who is the founder of World Economic Forum, Trump hopes to gain investment opportunities for the U.S. I think this story was reported in candid manner without any bias.