Temperament

Participants

            For my research study, I will be
gathering participants from two courses offered at Southern New Hampshire
University. All the participants are enrolled in psy 510 and psy 520 graduate
study courses. Participants will range from ages 22-60+. For my specific
research study, I will need 7-10 participants to partake in this study. These
participants are going to be recruited through random sampling online, then ask
to complete an online survey on temperament.

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Materials

            The only material that will be used
for this study is an online tool that Southern New Hampshire University offers their
graduate students called Qualtrics. This tool helps the graduate students
recruit other graduate students to complete their survey.

Procedure

            The first thing that the participants are
going to be asked to do is to read over the introduction of our survey. The
introduction that the participants read is important because based on what you
write in your introduction; it can captivate or bore the participants in not
taking the survey. Once the participants decide if this is a study they want to
partake in, they will then start a short version of the Adult Temperament
Questionnaire. The Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ) is a self-report
questionnaire that focuses on four scales: negative affect,
extraversion/surgency, effortful control and orienting sensitivity (Evans and
Rothbart, 2007). Participants will be asked basic questions about their
personality, values and beliefs. Each scale will then have 4-5 items and will
have a similar format as a Likert scale.

Demographics

            On top of the 20-25 questions that the
participants are going to be asked to answer, they will also answer a few
questions about their demographics. The survey will ask questions about their
age, gender, nationality, ethnicity and where they live. All these questions
will be a crucial part in my study because we will then group similar
participants based on their ethnicity or where they live to determine if there
are cross-cultural differences in temperament.

Adult Temperament Scale

            A survey will then be administered to
determine how well the items described them on a 5 item Likert scale: 1-
extremely untrue, 2- slightly true, 3-neither true or false, 4-slightly true,
5-emtremely true. This shorter survey will measure and target multiple aspects
similarly to the adult temperament questionnaire. Participants will be asked
certain questions and each question will target one of the four scales:
negative effect, extraversion/surgency, effortful control and orienting
sensitivity. The questions would not be labeled as to which scale it will
specifically focus on. This will help to accurately see how the participants
rate themselves truthfully on each given scale.

Negative Affect

            Throughout the survey, participants
will be asked questions that they must think relates to themselves in any way. This
survey will have five questions. Berdan, Keane & Calkins (2008) use four
subscales to measure temperament: fear, sadness, discomfort and frustration.
These four subscales will be used to narrow temperament into four categories.  This will be measured using a five point
Likert scale. This is an important survey because negative affect is “thought to
be a marker of emotional dysregulation” (Berdan et al., 2008).

Extraversion/Surgency

            This survey will have five questions
specifically focusing on three subscales: sociability, high intensity pleasure
and positive affect (Berdan et al., 2008).. This will also be measured using a
five point Likert scale. Berdan et al., (2008) belived that
extraversion/surgency is a risk factor for the development of externalizing
problems, including aggression and hyperactivity.

Effortful Control

            Effortful control will also be
measured using a five point Likert scale. This scale will focus on three
subscales: attentional control, inhibitory control and activation control (Berdan
et al., 2008).

Orienting Sensitivity

            This survey will be administered in five
questions using a five point Likert scale. This scale will focus on three
subscales: neutral perceptual sensitivity, affective perceptual sensitivity and
associate sensitivity (Berdan et al., 2008). This scale will measure the participant’s
sensitivity to certain aspects of their life.

Ethics

            Before administering the survey to
the participants, I will have them read and sign a consent waiver. This is very
important because it will avoid any ethical issues that may arise throughout or
during the study. Ethics play a huge part when conducting research because of
its severity of following basic APA guidelines. One of the biggest concerns
with this research study is the low amount of participants who will be taking the
survey. Since I will be using 7-10 participants, the results will not be as
significant enough if we had a bigger participant pool.

Data Analysis

            After I gather the data collection from
the participants, it will be plugged into the system called SPSS. IMB SPSS is a
system software that will allow anyone to put in data for statistical analysis.
I will then use basic descriptive statistics to find out the means, standard deviation,
averages, etc.  I will then use a compare
means function to compare the different type of results given by each participant.
A graph will be useful to show you a change in temperament based on one’s
cultural background/upbringing. I will then use the Pearson’s r correlation to
determine if there were any relationships between temperament and the different
cultures listed by the participants. The overall survey will focus on the four
scales of temperament: negative affect, extraversion/surgency, effortful
control and orienting sensitivity.

Results

            The results for my research study will
anticipate a high significance. The results will hopefully show that there are
cross-cultural differences in temperament. Although the anticipated results
will be information collected by adults, this will show if there are
differences in temperament with each individual as well as cultural
differences. The results will also be carefully described for people to
understand in order to avoid any ethical issues that can arise like misleading
results.

A
limitation to my study would be the overall sample size of my participant pool.
In any given study, the best studies are the ones that recruit a lot of people.
The bigger your sample size, the more accurate your results can be. The other
limitation is only being able to use students from Southern New Hampshire
University. By having this as a requirement our distribution will not be
normalized therefore making it harder to generalize for a larger group of
population. Another limitation can be the demographic differences between the
samples. Age and ethnicity will play a big role in this study and is the reason
why we want see a wide range of differences between different cultures. 

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