the dams

 

THE DAMS

 

 

 

Abdullah Hamdan Al-Saeedi

 

Civil Engineering, College Of
Engineering, Majmaah university, Saudi Arabia

 

[email protected]

10/11/2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT:
This report
discusses  main topics of the dam such as
definition of dam, the purpose of building the dam ,the importance of the dam
and how the dam can prevent the flood and generate hydropower. Also this report
studies the suitable location to build the dam ,classification of the dams and
the importance of water intake in dams.

 

 

 

KEYWORDS: dams, power generation ,water intake, hydropower.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDEXES:

 

Table
of content:

 Abstract: 2

 Indexes: 3

 Introduction: 5

 Importance of dam: 6

 Water
supply. 6

 Power
generation: 6

 Stabilize
water flow: 7

 Navigation: 7

 Location Of 
Dams: 7

 Significant
other engineering and engineering geology regard when constructing a dam
include. 8

– Permeability of the surrounding rock or soil. 8

Earthquake- 8

slope stability- 8

Water table- 8

Peak flood flows- 8

 -Removal
of the toxic materials. 8

Classification
of dams: 9

According to structure: 9

Arch dams- 9

Arch-gravity dams- 9

Barrages dams- 9

Embankment dams- 9

According to materials : 9

Steel dams- 9

Timber dams- 9

According to use: 9

– Saddle dam. 9

– Weir dam. 9

– Check dam. 9

– Dry dam.  9

Water intake structure in the dam: 8

The key requirement of the intake structure are: 9

-An adequate size to provide the required quantity
of water. 9

-Locate to obtain the best quality water. 9

-protected from objects that may damage equipment. 9

-Easy to inspect and maintain. 9

Type water Intake structure: 10

? Exposed intake: constructed above the water 10

?  Submerged Intake: constructed
under the water. 10

RECOMMENDATION: 10

Conclusion : 11

References: 12

 

 

 

 Table Of  Figures:                                                                                       

Figure 1. 6

Figure 2. 7

Figure 3. 9

Figure4. 10

Figure 5. 11

Figure 6. 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.      INTRODUCTION:

A dam is a structure a  that
constrains  the flow of water or
underground water sources. Furthermore, dams can not only be used to save lives
be constraining the flow of floods but it can used for other purposes such as
water reserving, irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and agriculture.

Generally, Hydropower can be used to convert the flow of water into
electricity. Dams generally are consist of walls of concrete and floodgates
control  water flow into specific land
regions.

 

Originally,  the purpose of
building a dam is not a modern discovery. 
In correlation, the same concept of building a dam can be related to the
discovery of the Dam construction. The 
ancient Egyptians in 2750-2950 B.C build the first dam which is known as
gravity dams. Gravity dams are straight dams that is built masonry or concrete
that resists the water load by means of weight.?[1] ?

 

Shown Old Timber Dam

Figure1

 

 

 

2.      IMPORTANCE
OF DAM:

2.1  Water supply:

Numerous urban regions of the world are provided with water
abstracted from streams repressed behind low dams or weirs?[2].

 

2.2 Power generation:

Hydroelectric power is a major source of electricity in the world.
Many nations have waterways with satisfactory water stream, that can be dammed
for control age purposes.?[3]  

 

 

2.3 Stabilize water flow:

The main propos of building Dams are to control and balance out
water stream, regularly for farming purposes and water system.?[4]

 

2.4 Navigation:

Dams make deep reservoirs and it  can also vary the flow of water downstream.
This can in return affect upstream and downstream navigation by altering the
river’s depth.?[5]  

 

shown importance of dams

Figure2

 

3.       LOCATION OF
DAMS:

The best places for construct a dam is a narrow part of a deep
river valley; the valley sides then can act as natural walls. The essential
function of the dam’s structure is to fill the gap in the normal store line
left by the stream channel.. The sites are usually those where the gap becomes
a minimum for the required storage capacity?[6].     

 

Significant other engineering and engineering
geology regard when constructing a dam include:

– Permeability of the surrounding rock or soil.

    Earthquake-

    slope
stability-

    Water table-

    Peak flood
flows-

                                                                                                                         -Removal of the toxic
materials? [7].

 

4.      CLASIFICATION
OF DAMS:

4.1 According to structure:

Arch dams-

Gravity dams-

Arch-gravity dams-

Barrages dams-

Embankment dams-

4.2 According to materials :

Steel dams-

Timber dams-

4.3 According to use:

– Saddle dam.

– Weir dam.

– Check dam.

– Dry dam.?[8]  

 

Shown Arch Dam

Figure3

5.     
 WATER INTAKE STRUCTURE IN DAMS:

 

Intake structures are used for withdraw water from the water
sources such as dams, river, lake, and reservoir and then  discharge using withdrawal conduit to reach a
water treatment plant. These structures are masonry or concrete structures and provides
clean water from  sand and large objects .?[9]   

 

The key
requirement of the intake structure are:

 

-An adequate size to provide the required quantity of
water.

-Locate to obtain the best quality water.

-protected from objects that may damage equipment.

-Easy to inspect and maintain?[10].  

 

Shown water Intake

Figure4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type water
Intake structure

? Exposed intake: constructed above the water

?  Submerged Intake: constructed
under the water?[11].

 

 

Exposed intake

Figure 5

Submerged intake

                                                                                    6  Figure

6.      RECOMMENDATION

Around the world, there is a huge need for clean and reuse waste
water, and by using  water intake in the
dam will provide these services which has economic cost comparing with another
method.

The same thing applies to energy supplies. Hydroelectric power is a
major source of electricity in the world and Large dams often provide these
services at a massive social, environmental and economic cost. The good news is
that better solutions exist. Clean, local energy sources such as wind, and hydropower
have become affordable and widely available.

 

 

7.      CONCLUSION

This report cover many topic about dam such as importance of dams
which are water supply, power generation, stabilize of water flow and
navigation.

The best places for construct a dam is a narrow part of a deep
river valley. The report also discusses the classification of dams according
to  structure, materials and use.

At the end of the report there are some ideas about the water
intake like the key requirement of the water 
intake structure. water intake consist of two type exposed intake and
submerged intake.

Study of foundation of dam will be the future work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

BOOKS:

[1]    
Edward
Wegmann. The Design and Construction of Dam.1908.

[2]    
ICID
Position Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.

[3]    
ICID
Position Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.

[4]    
ICID
Position Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.

[5]    
ICID
Position Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.

[6]    
Barry
Lewis. Small Dams: planning, construction and maintenance.1942.

[7]    
Barry
Lewis. Small Dams: planning, construction and maintenance.1942.

[8]    
Sharad
k. Jain. Hydrology and Water Resource of India.

[9]    
Mark
j Hammer. Water and Waste Water Technology.

[10]  Mark j Hammer. Water and Waste Water Technology.

[11]  Mark j Hammer. Water and Waste Water Technology.

 

 

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