uwb technology

Objective –
The aim of this report is to a  give breif knowledge of  UWB (Ultra Wide Band) technology and it’s
application.    
Motivation
behind-   a) The
motivation behind this report is  for
rescue robots to detect human beings and to have an accurate positioning
system. In indoor positioning, GPS receivers cannot be used due to the
reflections or attenuation caused by obstacles. To detect human beings,
sensors such as thermal camera, ultrasonic and microphone can be embedded
on the rescue robot. The drawback of these sensors is the detection range.
These sensors have to be in close proximity to the victim in order to
detect it. UWB technology is then very helpful to ensure precise localization
of the rescue robot inside the disaster site and detect human beings.

b) To do communication between robots in sea or
waterbodies.

Literature
Review-  According to FCC(Federal Communications Commission)- UWB
technology is to transmit and receive information over a large bandwidth .
UWB implementations modulate an extremely short duration impulse that has
a very sharp rise and fall time, thus resulting in a waveform that
occupies several GHz of bandwidth.

These are the two conditions of UWB technology:

a) BW ?500MHz

 or

b)BW/fc ?0.2

 where fc is
the central frequency and BW is the bandwidth.

UWB can operate between 3.1GHz and 10.6 GHz at
limited transmission powers for indoor communications, as de?ned in FCC.

 For
underwater communication- The UWB system will work between 100 MHz and 1 GHz
because the propagation will be in liquid and it won’t interfere in other
technologies that use this range of frequencies in air.

For Imaging and Radar implementation-The UWB system
having bandwidth 2.3GHz.

UWB was originally developed for military
communications and radar. However, thanks to the good features o?ered, the
commercial applications are increasing and UWB systems received more and more
attention in the latest years.

Advantage of UWB technology-

1)It’s coverage range is about 30 m.

2)Data rate is above 1Gbps.

3) As the UWB operates at low noise level
conventional receivers will not be able to decode the signal and hence it is
one of the major technologies used for military communication.

4) Being very
low power signal it will not interfere with other wireless systems in the same
frequency band.

5) They can
easily penetrate into the walls.

6)It has good noise immunity.

7)It has high immunity to multipath fading.

8)It has high resolution localization,due to the
very short pulse duration.

9)It has  multiple-access
capabilities,due to the wide bandwidth of transmission.

10)It has  possibility
of coverting communications, with low probability of interception, due to the
low power spectral density.

 

Methodology
/ Proposed algorithm –

For UWB communiocation system-

 

 

For Human detection

Technologies
Involved- Ultra wide band Technology is used for
communication as well as for detection.

 

Application-
Application of Ultra Band Technology is
mentioned bolow-

 

1)One of these applications is the Smart-PEAS (Process Environment Actuators
and Sensor) project.This project is developed by  the department of Circuits and Systems (CAS),
Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands. The function of this Smart PEAS is to
integrate it in to an UWB(Ultra Wide Frequency) wireless network to achieve
local control and local measurement in process equipment to improve the quality
of  products  and
get some information.

2)Second  application of UWB(Ultra
Wide Band) technology is underwater communication.

3)Another most important application of Sense-Through-Wall Human
Detection .

4) Vehicular radar systems. Detection of the position and movement of
objects near the vehicle are more accurate by using UWB devices.

5) Imaging systems, like ocean imaging, medical diagnostic and
surveillance devices. UWB re?ections of the target exhibit not only changes in
amplitude and time shift, but also changes in the pulse shape.

6)Location aware communications. The good performance of UWB devices in multipath
channels can provide accurate geolocation capability for indoor and obscured
environments where GPS does not work.

Future
Prospective-  The
majority of the discussion so far has focused on the state of the art of
UWB technology as it is today and near future. However, future UWB
developments and drivers that may shape future evolutions of this
technology are:

• Integral part of 4G communications networks;

• Very high data rate requirements driven by the development of 3D
imaging technology and applications;

• Digital implementation solutions; and

• Super-high density wireless sensor networks.

References- 1) http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/UWB-tutorial.html

2) http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/uwb/ultra-wideband-technology.php

3)New Method for Localization and Human Being Detection using UWB
Technology: Helpful Solution for Rescue Robots by David Espès, Ana Maria
Pistea, Charles Canaff, Ioana Iordache, Philippe Le Parc, Member, IEEE Emanuel
Radoi, Member, IEEE

4) S. Bhatia, H. S. Dhillon and N. Kumar, “Alive human body detection
system using an autonomous mobile rescue robot”, IEEE India Conference, Dec
2011.

5) M. Chia, S. Leong, C. Sim, K. Chan, Through-wall uwb radar operating
within fcc’s mask for sensing heart beat and breathing rate, in: Radar
Conference, 2005. EURAD 2005. European, IEEE, 2005, pp. 267–270.   

 

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