Wheelchair

 Career Episode 1IntroductionCE 1.1The project named “Multitechnology Based Wheelchair Control System” was my final year Engineering project during the year XXXX. I undertook this project with my team members as my academic project and submitted to PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh. It was conceptualized, designed and executed under the guidance of my project guide.Chronology???: January 2015 – May 2015Name of the organization?: Padre Conceicao College of EngineeringGeographical Location?: Goa, IndiaProject Title???: Industrial Pick and Place RobotPosition???: StudentBackgroundCE 1.2Wheelchairs are intended to be used by elderly people who are unable to walk due to any disability, physical illness or injury. I gathered information about the different types of weelchairs available and the features they offer. Some types which are available are manual or self-propelled wheel chair, speech recognition, image recognition and sensor controlled wheelchair. Designing a wheel chair with multi technology features enabling the elderly people to operate easily is the sole intention behind selecting this project. I and my team members researched on the available weel chairs and the features they offer to the people. We took regular guidance from our project guide to implement enhanced features in the chair.  CE 1.3We, therefore, decided to design a wheel chair using touch screen for physically disabled people. I designed the chair in manual mode using avr microcontroller. This would enable the design to be very effective and low in cost. I designed this chair using embedded system to enhance its efficiency and provide easy access for disabled people. This chair would enable the person to change direction on his own without taking anybody’s help. We also implemented GSM technology which provided the facility of making calls or sending messages from the touch screen. I researched on the topic to implement desired enhanced features in the wheel chair.Aim and ObjectiveCE 1.4The aim of the project was to design a multi technology wheel chair for disabled people with a touch screen and enhanced features to make life easy for them. The design was to be proposed to lower cost and improve efficiency. GSM technology was to be used to enable to make calls and send messages through touch screen. The design was to be implemented using embedded technology. This should enable the people to use less force for operation at relatively constant speeds.AbstractCE 1.5This project aimed to design and develop a multi technology featured wheel chair for disabled people to make their lives easy. This project uses a touch screen to feed the input and implements the system using GSM and embedded technology. This wheel chair would enable the user to change the direction through touch screen without taking any other person’s help. AVR microcontroller is used which monitors the input given and performs tasks accordingly. DC motors are used at the bottom of wheel chair for easy movement of vehicle. For interface between microcontroller and motors, motor driver L293D is used.Roles and ResponsibilitiesCE 1.6• Gather information on existing wheel chair models in market and study their features offered• Research on how technology could be implemented in the wheel chair to provide improved features and efficiency to the disabled people• Research and study with team members to implement embedded technology, GSM technology into the design• Analyse the technical specification and other requirements of the project• Design and execute the project in a systematic manner • Coordinate with team members and project guide to achieve desired results and work for future developments• Monitor the results for desired output• Prepare final project report for submission in the college.Organization ChartHead of the DepartmentCE 1.7  Student  Project Guide     Personal Engineering ActivityCE 1.8Prior to starting the project, I researched on the previous methodologies implemented in wheel chairs. I studied their methods of operation and observed their characteristics. As the system was to be designed using embedded systems, I studied the concepts of embedded technology and analysed how it could be implemented in the design. I studied the different types and applications of embedded systems. I set up an appropriate project goal, along with team members, to execute the project in a systematic manner. I designed the system with hardware as shown in the block diagram:  CE 1.9Hardware UsedATMEGA8 Microcontroller – I used this microcontroller considering its several advantages it offers. It consumes less power and is a CMOS 8- bit microcontroller based on architecture of AVR RISC. It is able to execute powerful instructions in a single clock cycle because of which it achieves throughputs of around 1 MIPS per MHz thus optimizing power consumption and processing speed.4-wire resistive Touchscreen- Resistive touch screen was used as it has high resolution of 4096 x 4096 DPI, thus providing precise touch control. The contact to touch screen can be made with a finger or any other pointed thing or device. The touch was detected using some calculations by applying positive voltages.  CE 1.10Liquid crystal display (LCD) – I used a 16X2 LCD which can display 16 characters per line. In this LCD, each character gets displayed in 5X7 pixel matrix and consists of two registers- Command and Data.L293D (motor driver) – This motor driver was used to provide higher current signal when low current control signal was taken. This higher signal drives the motors. We gave appropriate connections to its pins and checked the output.DC Motor- I used a DC motor which generates electromagnetic field through coil of wire. This magnetic field can be switched on or off depending upon the direction of current in the coil. CE 1.11GSM module (SIMCOM-900) – This was used to establish communication between a GSM system and computer. We connected the GSM module as shown- GSM Modem – It was used to send, receive or delete SMS messages in a SIM. It can read, add and search entries in phone book of the SIM. It can also make, reject or receive a voice call. AT commands were given to modem by processor to communicate through serial communication. I checked the functioning of GSM module by giving different AT commands to the module. The results were checked for required output.7805 Voltage Regulator ICThis IC was used to maintain output voltage at constant value and control fluctuations occurring in the voltage source. It provides +5V regulated power supply. CE 1.12Software and Tools UsedAVR Studio 4I used this tool to feed program code to AVR microcontroller. The code was programmed in C language. This tool was used to write, create and debug the written codes.Proteous 7.6This software was used for simulation of microprocessor, PCB design and schematic capture. A program was written in C language to interface LCD with the microcontroller ATMEGA 8. The results were checked by simulation through Proteous software. CE 1.13Working of ProjectThe connections and hardware were used as discussed in earlier sections. To check for desired results, the user should press and give proper input through the touch screen. The input data is then sent to microcontroller, where it processes the information and give appropriate instructions to motor to move in desired direction. The microcontroller can send commands to GSM module to call or send message to attendant in case of any emergency. Hence, it would enable the person to control the wheel chair through touch screen without taking others’ help. This wheel chair offered better features such as high sensitivity touchscreen, long life, stable performance wide detection range and fast response.Results and DiscussionCE 1.14The objective of the project was to design and develop a wheel chair having multi technology features to make life easy for disabled people. I and my team members researched on the topic and existing wheel chair models to design a wheel chair with more advanced features. I used technology such as GSM, embedded for accurate functioning and used touch screen to give the inputs. We took regular guidance from our project guide who monitored the progress of project at each phase to obtain desired results. He suggested further advancements possible in the design for future scope. I designed the system as mentioned and used hardware as shown in block diagram. The code for LCD, microcontroller was programmed in C language and used Proteous 7.6 software to simulate the results. We checked the results by connecting the circuit to a wheel chair. When the input through touch screen was given to the chair, the chair was able to move in desired direction. Also through GSM technology, it was able to make calls to people and send messages. I monitored the entire functioning of the design and obtained desired results. CE 1.15I was able to complete the project successfully within assigned time and submitted it to the college. I accomplished the project with the help of my team members and took guidance from our project guide. He was very supportive throughout the project and provided us feedback and suggestions for further developments. We worked as a team with positive attitude and good team spirit. Technical Difficulties FacedCE 1.16We faced issue in programming the code for accurate results. Proper connections had to be made to each pin of the microcontroller to ensure high performance of the microcontroller. Sometimes, the results got were delayed as compared to inputs given. For this, we had to make appropriate changes in the code to obtain fast response. GSM technology had to be carefully integrated in the design with proper specifications and hardware needed. I researched in depth on the concepts to incorporate multiple features in the chair.ConclusionCE 1.16The project was to design a multi technology based wheel chair control system. In order to design an effective and efficient wheel chair for disabled people, I extensively researched on the concepts and analysed how advanced features could be integrated in the design. I designed the system using GSM and embedded technology for the wheel chair to function as required. I used AVR microcontroller to control the functions of the wheel chair. It performed the functions as per the inputs given to it. I used a touch screen to give the inputs which would make the disabled people to handle the wheel chair easily. DC motors were fixed at the bottom of wheel chair for movement. For accurate functioning, the code for microcontroller and LCD was programmed accordingly in C language and simulated using tools mentioned. The results were satisfactory and met the objectives of the project. This wheel chair would provide easy living for disabled people without taking others help. This project helped me to gain subject knowledge and improved my ability to think for future developments.     

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